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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Library of Work and Play: Housekeeping, byElizabeth Hale Gilman

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at

Title: The Library of Work and Play: Housekeeping

Author: Elizabeth Hale Gilman

Release Date: January 23, 2014 [EBook #44732]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Chris Curnow, Emmy and the Online DistributedProofreading Team at (This file wasproduced from images generously made available by TheInternet Archive)





HOME DECORATION By Charles Franklin Warner, Sc.D.

HOUSEKEEPING By Elizabeth Hale Gilman.


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NEEDLECRAFT By Effie Archer Archer.



By Mary Rogers Miller.

WORKING IN METALS By Charles Conrad Sleffel.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Have You a Play-House?]

_The Library of Work and Play_








"_Look not thou down, but up! To uses of a cup, The festal board, lamp's flash and trumpet's peal, The new wine's foaming flow, The Master's lips a-glow! Thou, Heaven's consummate cup, what need'st thou with earth's wheel?_"





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I. My Heritage 63 II. The Plan 69 III. The Accounts 87 IV. The Schedule 101 V. Possessions 115 VI. Care of Fittings and Furniture 121 VII. Upstairs Work 146

VIII. Dining-room and Pantry Work 160 IX. The Kitchen 188 X. The Cellar, Fires, Plumbing, etc. 208 XI. Menus and Marketing 244 XII. Cooking 274 XIII. Washing and Ironing 312 XIV. House Cleaning 337 XV. Emergencies 353 XVI. Servants 370 XVII. Martha 382 XVIII. The Inspiration 388


Have You a Playhouse? _Frontispiece_

FACING PAGE A Playhouse Somebody Else Has Made 14 Tidying 52 The Account Book 90 The Broom Closet 140

Straight and Smooth 150 Air, Sun, and Water 156 Order and Daintiness 164 Cooking 274




_Monday, I wash my dollies' clothes, And Tuesday, smoothly press them. Wednesday, I mend their little hose, And Thursday, neatly dress them. Friday, I play they're very ill, Saturday, something or other. Sunday, I say, "Lie still, I'm going to church with mother."_

WHEN I was walking in a garden the other day, I saw a play-house. And

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what do you suppose it was? A big tree with humpy roots which stuck outof the ground, and low branches which nearly touched the grass at theends. You could not stand up straight in the house if you were morethan three feet tall, but as the people who lived in the house wereonly about two feet eleven inches, they did not mind that.

You should have seen the china-closet. It was under a bent root, and

all the dishes were white with violet markings. One might have thoughtthey were big and little and middling-sized clam-shells, if one had notseen them in a china-closet.

There was a bedroom between two big roots. A doll was taking a napthere, not on a pine-pillow, but on a whole bed of pleasant-smellingpine needles which had dropped off a tree in the neighbourhood. Themistress of the house was in the kitchen cooking, and the kitchen, ofcourse, was where the sun came through a break in the branches. Onemust have a patch of sun in a kitchen, for how can you bake withoutit? When I went into this kitchen, there was a cake baking, with anornament on the top that looked quite like an acorn.

I was invited to stay for lunch, and I will tell you what we had:First, there were brown-bread cutlets, and smooth white stone potatoes,and a wonderful salad made of maple leaves and pepper-grass. Then fordessert we had the cake I had seen baking, and milk. The cake had abrown layer made from the garden beds and a yellow layer made fromthe path, and was iced with white sand. You will guess that the brownbread cutlets and the milk were what people getting up plays call"practicable," which is just a grown-up word for "really and truly."

A tree is one of the nicest play-houses a person can have. But supposeit is a rainy day! We will play it _is_ a rainy day, and we will go andgo until we get to a house with a steep roof. And we will go in, and

go upstairs, and then upstairs again until we get to a garret, where wecan see the rafters sloping to the ridge over our heads, and the insideof the shingles. On the floor are trunks and boxes and barrels, and allsorts of things are hanging from the rafters. Sometimes we hear thepigeons running on the outsides of the shingles and cooing under theeaves. It is a lonely sound. It is rather dark, too, but we are brave,and we get past two saddles, and a row of white petticoats, and a dimplace where there are a lot of old books with strange dark picturesin them, which one likes to be sure are shut in tight. At last we getround a corner and find a gable with a pointed window, and there is aplay-house where a little girl and eight dolls live. There are fourrooms in the play-house, though if you are not thinking, you may verylikely walk right through the walls and not know it. On one side of thewindow is a bedroom, and on the other side is the kitchen. The diningroom and the living room are in the corners nearest the rest of thegarret.

The little girl's big sister put up some pictures on the sloping woodenwalls to suit each room. One of them is very useful when the littlegirl is deciding what to play. It is seven little pictures on a cardwith verses to explain them. You can read the verses at the beginningof this chapter; I am sorry the pictures are not there, too.

This little girl likes especially to play "Monday, I wash my dollies'clothes"--because she has a tub and a washboard, and a wringer that

will really let buttons through, and clothespins and a clothes-horse,and all the garret to put up lines in. Housework, you know, is so muchmore fun if you have the right things to do it with.

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"Tuesday, I neatly press them," is a good day, too, but "Wednesday, Imend their little hose," is not. One cannot sit still and make believesew, for many minutes. When mother was told about this trouble, shelooked at the pictures and said, "Why, there's no sweeping day! As soonas the stockings are mended on Wednesday, you had better sweep, andtidy things up a little." Mother often wants things "tidied up" when it

isn't in the game. She says, she does not keep her little girl's haton the dining table, nor leave her bed unmade, and she cannot have thedolls brought up that way either.

The Friday game is one of the best. The two dolls that have nightdresses are most often sick. Of course, it is a great care to have adoll sick, but it does make a great many interesting things to do. Shemay need cold-water cloths, or a hot-water bottle, or a poultice, andthere is always medicine to give and meals to serve on a tray. Thenthe bed should be made over often. The little girl who lives in thisplay-house likes to have her dolls ill when she has company, becausethen there is some one to be the doctor.

"Saturday something or other," usually means cooking, and that, too, isa favourite game for company. Sometimes the little girl goes down intothe "really and truly" kitchen to market, or sometimes mother sends upa little cake baked in a doll's pan. That makes a very grand occasion.The table must be laid with all the dishes, and napkins if possible,when there is a cake from the big kitchen.

A great many things can happen in a garret play-house, besideshousekeeping. Sometimes it is so still up there, that one knows onemust be in a deep forest, or out on the plains; and, of course, in thatcase, the cooking or nursing may be interrupted by a band of robbers,or an attack from Indians, or one may have a visit from an escaping

prisoner, and besides, there are always long, dangerous journeys totake through the garret. In fact, every time one hears a new story,something unusual is likely to happen in the play-house.

Have you a play-house? I hope you have. Nowadays, when rents are sohigh, and when many people live in flats and apartments, it is oftenhard to get a play-house, but it can usually be managed in some way. Ifwe have a nursery or a play-room all our own, then it is easy to havea play-house. We only have to get mother, or nurse to give us a cornerto fix as we like, and to advise us about sorting things. Perhaps theywill let us make the whole room into a play-house, but we really cankeep house nicely in a much smaller space than that. The great pointis to get the things together which belong together. If the bedroomthings stand together, that is all we need to have a bedroom, and ifthe kitchen things are together, there is the kitchen. If we have adining table, why, there is the dining room, and our living room can beanywhere where mother likes us to have most of the chairs.

But even if we have not a play-room we can still have a house. I knowsome clever dolls and their mother who keep house in the cupboard partof an old-fashioned washstand. The way they manage is to make thecupboard any room they wish to use. Monday morning it is a laundry, andevery night it is a bedroom, and if they give a luncheon it is a diningroom, and Saturday it is a kitchen. They keep the furniture which doesnot suit the room they are using in the drawer of the washstand which

is over their heads.

I know another family who live under a dressing table. The legs of the

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table show where the corners of their house are, and they change theroom into anything they need it for, as the other people do.

One little girl I know, whose name is Esther, lives in a flat and hasonly a bureau drawer for her housekeeping things. This is quite hard,for it means so much packing and unpacking, and parting with things shewould like to keep when the drawer gets too full. She has to take her

two dolls and a few things she thinks they will need into the parlouror the bedroom and play house there. In the bedroom, she plays it isnight, because it is always nearly dark in there. Her mother lets herplay with her big grown-up beds and chairs and stoves and irons. If shedid not, Esther would have a hard time keeping house for her dolls.

But it is not always the people who live in flats who have not room fortheir things, is it? Sometimes after Christmas, or a birthday, one justfeels as if one were trying to keep house in a toy shop. The best curefor this trouble is to give things away. Because--it is dreadful tothink about--there are people who have no dolls: and there are peoplewho have not so much as a tin cup to begin housekeeping with; and there

are little girls who have real babies to look after, and real meals tocook who would just dearly love to have the games and toys that have tobe packed away in closets and drawers because their owners have so manyother things.

It is easy to _say_, give things away, but, my stars! how hard it isto decide which to give. One just can't give away the new things, andone feels so fond of the old ones, when one gets them out and looksat them. The only way to part with them is to think of Saint Martincutting his cloak in two for the beggar, or something inspiring likethat. Even then one feels a little dreary.

Once there was a little girl whose family moved into a smaller house.

There was not room in her new play-house for the many things she hadin her old one. Some of them had to be given away. One decision wasso hard to make that she remembered about it after she was a grown-upwoman. There was a little green wagon with yellow wheels, which shehad always had, and which her older sisters had played with beforeshe was born, and there was a little orange-coloured cart with fourred wheels, which her father had brought out from town, a week or twobefore, filled with soap.

Two wagons were too many for the new play-house, and mother said keepthe green one, because the other was only an "advertisem*nt"; and theolder sisters said keep the green one, because it was better and theyhad played with it; and father just smiled and said, "You must decide."

When no one was looking, the little girl took the littleorange-coloured wagon with four red wheels, and the big letters roundthe outside, which made it an "advertisem*nt," and put it in the boxmother was packing for some other children, and it hurt so to do itthat she could not quite help crying.

Some of us are troubled more with having too few things than too many,are we not? We can make a game of getting out of this trouble. We mustall be discoverers and inventors, and if there is something needed inthe play-house, we must keep our eyes wide open to see what else willdo or what we can find to make into the thing we want. It spoils the

hunt, and the surprise, if some one else tells you what to do, but oneor two little things will show what the game is like. For instance, ifit is a bed you need, try a strong pasteboard box, not very deep. If

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you mind its having no legs, then you must go on a journey and have ita berth on a car or a ship.

A cigar-box makes a good trunk for a small doll, especially the boxeswhich have trays in them. A doll with a cigar-box trunk will never havemoths in her clothes.

Paper napkins are useful for dolls' tablecloths, and for napkins whenthey are cut into small squares. They will even do for sheets, ifmother cannot spare us white "pieces" that are big enough. A bandannahandkerchief, or a scrap of bright calico, makes a good bedquilt.

Shells we have brought home from a day at the beach are convenient fordishes. Radiators are splendid stoves. And did you ever find out howmuch closet room there is under a bed? With the help of a few pins, onecan hang all the dolls' clothes from the springs, and shut them in withthe counterpane, if it happens to be a long one. But if mother does notwant you to do this, you mustn't.

You will be able to make a great many discoveries and inventions,if you think what you want, and then think what to make it out of.But the best and most wonderful thing about a play-house is, that ifwe have to, we can make one anywhere, or out of anything. Once, twolittle girls wrote home about a visit they had paid, "We had two ragdolls and we played house." Even one little girl, without so much as arag doll, can have a play-house. She has only to _imagine_, that is,pretend, and there it is--with rooms, and staircases, and people, andeverything needful. It can be big or little; and in the country or inthe city. She can do the washing, or give a dinner party; take care ofa sick doll, or work in the garden, just as she pleases. It is easierand happier to play with the pleasant things people give us, and to beable to see and touch most of the things in our play-houses, but we

always want some imagined things, too. And if it should happen thatwe are in a place where we "have nothing to play with," then we canimagine and pretend, and go and play in the play-house we always havewith us. In a second, we can build it into a wigwam, or a palace, or acave, or a great castle, or it can be just the house we live in when weare at home.

* * * * *

Sometimes, when we have played a good while in the play-house, we feeltired, and if it isn't a nap we want, perhaps it is that we would liketo go and play in a play-house somebody else has made. We need not takea journey to do this, we only need some one to tell us a story, or astory-book to read to ourselves. We might choose to read "Cinderella,"for that is the princess of housekeeping stories, or it may be that wewill find one we like, if we go on reading this book.


Do you ever have Irish Stew for luncheon? Most Irish Stews are a gooddeal alike, but this is the story of one that was different.

Once upon a time there was an Irishman who lived in a little two-roomedhut on the edge of a bog. All day, he cut peats in the bog, for that

is the way he made his living. It was not a very good living; in fact,he was very poor indeed. At night, when he came back to the hut, therewere often only a few potatoes for supper, which he boiled in a pot

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over the fire. His old father had died a few years before, and that wasthe reason he lived alone.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

A Play-house Somebody Else Has Made]

One chilly, foggy night, the Irishman had come home late through thewet and the dark, and lighted his fire. There was very little forsupper, and he had not had a chance to cook that, when Thump! Thump!came a knock on the door. He was ever so frightened, but he thought itwould be better to open the door than have it thumped in. When hedid open it--Preserve us! there were five big robbers with knives, andpistols, and high boots and fierce, bright eyes. They all crowded intothe little hut, and threw more peat on the fire and demanded supper.The Irishman apologized, and said he had only potatoes. The robberssaid they had to have something better than that, and all five ofthem laid their five big knives on the table with a look which meant,"Supper or your life!"

The Irishman went into the other little room and sat down on a chestto think. There was nothing in the room but the chest, and nothing inthe chest but a few old clothes, and the more he tried to think, theless he was able to do it. At last, for no reason at all, he opened thechest. In it lay an old cloak, which his father had worn forty yearsand more.

No sooner had he seen it, than he went back to the room where therobbers were, and they saw him take the pot into the little room, andvery soon come back and put all the potatoes into it and some water,and hang it over the fire, which was now so hot and bright that the potsoon began to boil. It simmered, and bubbled and steamed and soon the

robbers began to sniff their supper. It did not smell like anythingthey had ever had before, but was not bad for a cold, foggy night.Pretty soon the Irishman set the pot on the table, and the robbers ateheartily. The Irishman was busy arranging something near the door. Allof a sudden, one robber choked. He choked, and choked, and two othersbeat him on the back. He coughed and coughed, and then, something flewout of his mouth. It was a button.

The Irishman turned up his eyes to the roof and said, "Ah me, that isthe last of a good old cloak." Before the robbers could move, he hadopened the door and disappeared into the fog.


A good while ago there was a king of England named Alfred. He was agreat and good king, but in spite of this, he had many enemies, whotried to take his kingdom away from him. Once, after a battle, thecountry was so overrun with his enemies, that he had to separate fromhis followers and go away in disguise. You would never have guessed hewas a king when he started, and when, after he had wandered a few daysin the forest, he came to a cowherd's hut, he looked like a hungry,ragged beggar. The cowherd and his wife gave him supper, and lethim stay all night, and gave him some breakfast next morning. Afterbreakfast, he sat for a long time looking into the fire, thinking

of his kingdom, and of the dangers and sorrows of his people. Thecowherd's wife was a hard-working woman, and it provoked her to seea great big man dreaming over the fire all the morning. She said to

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herself, "If he has no work of his own to attend to, he shall just helpwith mine." She put some meal cakes on a board to bake before the fire,and told the King to watch them carefully while she went out to feedthe pig.

The King said he would watch them, but he kept on thinking about hisarmy, and the heavy taxes, and by and by the woman came back.

There was smoke in the room, but she could see that the stranger wasstill sitting beside the fire, and that her cakes were burned tocinders. My, my, but she was angry. She boxed her guest's ears soundly,little dreaming that she was laying hands on the Sacred Person of theKing, and might be hanged for it. The King, however, took her blows andher scolding, for he was very sorry he had let the cakes burn.

Afterward, when he had driven out his enemies and was at home again inhis own castle he told what a scolding he had got for thinking abouthis troubles when he should have been baking the cakes.


Long ago, longer than you can even imagine, nobody in the world knewhow to cook. People were not as dreadfully hungry on that account asyou might think, because, you see, they ate their food uncooked. No onehad ever cooked, and no one had ever thought of it; no one had evereaten cooked food, and no one knew how pleasant it tasted.

This is the story of the way a little Chinese boy found out how toroast pig.

His name was Bo-bo and he had been left at home by his father, Ho-ti,

to look after their hut, and their one big pig, and their nine littlepigs. Bo-bo, was fond of playing with fire, and what did he do but setfire to some straw, and that set fire to the hut, and burned it down. Amuch more serious matter was that the one big pig and the nine littlepigs were burned along with the hut.

Bo-bo was dreadfully frightened when he saw what he had done. He knewhis father would beat him, and he began to cry. He also poked roundamong the ruins of the hut, though he did not hope to find anything.As he was turning over the embers, he found one of the little burntpigs, and tried to pull it out. It was very hot, and burnt his hands,and he did just what you or I would have done--put his burnt fingers inhis mouth.

The instant his hands reached his mouth, Bo-bo forgot all about beingburned. He licked his fingers, but not because they hurt him. He didnot know why he did lick them, but he kept on. Neither he nor any oneelse in the world had ever tasted such a wonderful taste.

Pretty soon, it came to him that it was the pig which tasted sodelicious, and no sooner had he thought this, than he sat down in theruins of the hut and began to eat great pieces of the little burnt pig.While he was making the best meal he had ever had in his life, hisfather came home, and when he saw that the hut was burnt down and thathis son was eating some horrible food that no one else had ever eaten

before, he began to beat Bo-bo with the stick he had in his hand. ButBo-bo did not seem to feel it. He hunted in the ashes for another pigand thrust it into his father's hands. Then the same thing happened

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which had happened to him. The pig burned Ho-ti's fingers and he putthem in his mouth, and after that he had no time to think of beatingany one, but sat down with his son in the ashes and made a good dinner.

From that time on, whenever they had little pigs, they burned downtheir hut to roast them. When the neighbours found it out, they thoughtit very wicked of Ho-ti and Bo-bo to eat burnt pig, but as soon as

they were persuaded to taste it, they changed their minds, and theneverybody was burning down his house in order to roast his pigs. Aftera long while, some one found out that one could cook without burningone's house down, which I am sure you will agree was a great discovery.

--Some day, when you go to school, you will have this story given toyou to read--for a lesson!


When King Arthur was King of England, a boy named Gareth, was growing

up in a castle far away from Camelot, the King's city. But he had twobrothers who were at Court, and who were Knights of the Order of theRound Table, and when they came home, now and then, Gareth asked themmore questions than you could count about the King and his knights,and the Court, and tournaments, and battles. Every day, he rode andpractised with lance and sword, and exercised in all ways that wouldmake him strong and skilful with arms. And always he tried to be braveand to be gentle toward weak things and to tell the truth. And thereason for all this was that, more than anything else in the world,he longed to be in the service of the King, and to be a Knight of theRound Table.

As Gareth grew older, and more and more worthy to be made a knight,

his mother, Bellicent, sorrowed and grieved. Her husband was very,very old, and her two elder sons had gone away to the Court, and shecould not bear to have Gareth leave her, for he was the youngest andlast. Though she saw that his heart's desire was to be with the King,yet she felt as if her heart would break if he went. She tried to makehim especially happy at home; she tried to persuade him that he wasnot skilful or brave enough to be a knight; she told him of dangersand wounds, and besought him not to go. Again and again he asked herpermission to go away and earn his knighthood; again and again sherefused.

One day when he had spoken so bravely and truly that she knew not howto resist him longer, the thought came to her to test his great desireto be with the King, and she said to him: "If you desire so greatly toserve the King, give the proof of it which I shall ask of you. Go tothe King and ask him to let you serve him in his kitchen for a year anda day, and tell no one your name and rank until the time is over."

She thought he would refuse to do it, but he kissed and thanked her,and quickly made ready to go to Camelot. For he wanted to serve theKing, and this was a way of doing it, though not the one he had hopedfor.

He journeyed a day and a night, and came to Camelot, the wonderful bigcity which he had never seen before. In the morning, the King sat in

the Great Hall of his palace to hear the requests and troubles of hispeople. There Gareth came, and stood before him. And when he raisedhis eyes to the King's quiet face, and met his eyes, he loved him and

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longed more than ever to serve him. It was a little hard, when he waslonging to be made a knight, and to be sent on an adventure, justto ask to be a kitchen-boy; but he did it, and the King granted hisrequest.

So joyous and strong was he when he went out from the presence of theKing, that he felt nothing would ever be hard to do again. But there

were things which were hard. The kitchen was a great stone room with anearth floor, and a fireplace at either end as big as a little room.When the great fires were lit it was mightily hot between, and therewas smoke and hurry, and jostling of servants, and there were somebad-tempered people and a great deal of hard work. There were trenchersand platters to be scoured, and big iron pots to be lifted about andwashed, and roasting meats to be watched and turned before the fires.The cooking tanned Gareth's face and hands as riding in the hot sunhad never done. When he could, he would run out into the courtyard,and play games with the other kitchen-boys, and when they were tired,they would sit against the wall and he would tell long tales he hadread, and some that he made up, about knights and dragons and enchanted

forests and robbers. The stories he loved best to tell, though, werestories of the King.

Often these play-times were broken in upon by the Master of theKitchens, who called them back to their tasks with no great gentleness.Especially was he a hard master to Gareth; and, strangely enough, thiswas because Gareth was willing and cheerful, for there are peoplewith such crooked places in their minds that they cannot see a personworking gladly at a hard task but they want nothing so much as to seeif they cannot break their cheerfulness. And that was the sort ofmaster Gareth found in the King's Kitchen. He missed his rides over thedowns in the clear air, and the right to go and come as he pleased. Butwhen things seemed hard he cast off the thought and laughed to himself,

saying, "It is for the King." In a little while, too, he learned totake fault-finding, and, now and again, a blow, in quietness. And this,too, was for the King.

As the days came and went, Bellicent, alone now with her old husband,thought of her son day and night; and the tasks that he must do and thediscomforts he must suffer seemed to her a thousand times worse than heever thought them. At last, when hardly a month of his trial had yetgone by, she could bear it no longer, but sent a messenger to the Kingto tell him the story, and to take to Gareth a horse and armour and allthings that he would need when it should please the King to make him aknight.

After the King had seen the messenger he sent for Gareth, and Garethleft his scouring and went gaily and eagerly to him. He was glad inhis love for the King, and I think he may have felt that he had bornerather unusual things for his sake. As he came near, the King loved himfor his youth and gaiety and faithfulness. But Gareth, looking up intothe quiet, loving eyes that were fixed on him, knelt down at the King'sfeet and bowed his head, and knew that nothing he could do for the Kingwould ever be too much.

The King ended Gareth's kitchen service and made him a knight, and someday you will read other stories about him, for he fought many battlesand loved a beautiful lady.

And it seems likely that the King loved him all the more because hecould cook and scour for his sake.

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Have you heard stories about Saint Francis of Assisi? There are a greatmany, and people like to hear them over and over again. For, thoughSaint Francis lived most of his life in a little, faraway, country town

in Italy, called Assisi, and though he died hundreds of years ago, yetevery year many people go to see the place where he lived, and thechurch where he is buried, and many people in countries far away fromItaly love him as well as they do their friends whom they can see andtalk to.

One of the stories about St. Francis tells of a flock of birds thatcame to listen to a sermon he preached to them, and another is about awolf whom he persuaded not to hurt people any more. The reason he coulddo these things, and the reason people who have never seen him love himvery dearly is because he loved everything and everybody in the world,and God and our Lord Jesus more than all.

No one was so dirty, or so sick, that he did not want to take care ofhim; no one was so cross, or so cruel, that he did not want to be kindto him.

Every day he went about helping poor people, and sick people, andtroubled people; and he taught them all to be sorry for the wrongthings they had done, and to sing songs of joy because God loved them.

After a little, a good many men began to help him do this. They gaveeverything they had to the poor, and never after that kept any money.They worked every day to get a little food, and the rest of the timethey spent in helping and teaching people. St. Francis called them his

"Little Brothers," not because they were small or young, but becausehe taught them to think themselves of no importance, and to think, ifanybody scolded them or hurt them, that they deserved it and more too.

One of these Little Brothers was named Brother Juniper. He was alwaysthinking of ways to help people. One day, all the Brothers went outto work, and left Brother Juniper to take care of the little hut wherethey lived, and to get some food for them. When he set about this hebegan to think of the Brothers who usually did the cooking, and howmuch time they had to spend every day getting food ready for the othersto eat. To be sure, they had but one good meal a day, yet even so thecooking of it took time the Brothers might otherwise have used forprayer, or tending the sick, or some other good work.

As Brother Juniper was thinking of this, a plan popped into his headwhich made him very glad. He took two big baskets, and went off happilyto several farmhouses in the neighbourhood, where the people were fondof the Little Brothers and liked to give them anything they needed.That day they gave Brother Juniper chickens and eggs and meat and saladand all sorts of vegetables, and they lent him some big iron pots. Hetook the baskets home heavy with food, and he came back and took thepots home. Then he made a big fire, and all the time he was happy andsang to himself, because he thought, "I will work hard to-day, and cookall this food, and then the Brothers won't have to think about cookingfor a week or more." He hung the pots over the fire, and put into them

all the food he had gathered without so much as taking the feathersoff the chickens or the shells off the eggs, or stopping to see whetherthe vegetables were all just fit to eat or not. Then he filled the pots

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with water, and before long they began to boil. The fire was furiouslyhot. Brother Juniper could not get near enough to it to stir the pots.When he found this out, he took a board and tied it fast to himself,and, with that for a shield, he leaped to a pot and stirred it, andthen leaped away again to cool himself; then he dashed at another andstirred that, and so on.

By and by, the Brothers came back, and the Brother Guardian with them,and they all sat down to dinner. Brother Juniper poured out some ofthe stew from his pots and brought it to the table. He was hot andtired, but delighted, and he told the others what he had done, and thatthey need not do any more cooking for a long time. The Brothers lookedat him, and looked at the stew, and looked at each other, but not amouthful could they eat. Brother Juniper urged them to begin, and whenthey did not, wondered what could be the matter. He was not left longin doubt, for the Brother Guardian told him that the dinner was not fitfor a pig to eat, and scolded him well for wasting so much good food.

Brother Juniper listened and the gladness died out of him. He went

and knelt at the Brother Guardian's feet and confessed his fault, andbegged to be forgiven for wasting the Brothers' food, and for gettingthem a dinner they could not eat. Then he went away by himself, andthe rest of that day and all the next, he neither ate nor spoke, norventured to come near any of the Brothers, because he was so sorry forhis wastefulness and stupidity.

But the Brothers and the Brother Guardian thought they would be willingto know as little about cooking as Brother Juniper if they could belike him in some other ways.


Long, long ago, there was a famine in a little town called Sarepta. Formonths and months there had been no rain, and nothing could grow in thefields, and the streams dried up and the sheep died and many peopledied, too, because they had no food.

A widow lived in Sarepta, who had one boy, and she was poor. When thefamine began she had just one barrel of meal and one cruse of oil, andbecause she knew she could get no more, she and her son ate as littleas they could, but even so, in a few months the meal was far down inthe bottom of the barrel, and the cruse of oil felt very light.

At last one morning, when the woman got up, she found there was onlyenough meal and oil to make one little cake. She looked at it a longtime, thinking they must certainly starve to death when that was gone;then she went out to get some wood for the fire, for she said toherself, "I will bake this one cake and we will eat it, but after thatwe will have to die." I expect she looked white and sad as she went,for it hurts very much to be so hungry that you die of it.

She found a few sticks, and was picking them up, when a tall old manstopped beside her and leaned on his staff. His clothes were made ofhairy skins, and he had a long gray beard, and his face and arms andlegs were brown and rough as if he had lived out in the sun and thefrost. He seemed to have been making a journey, and he asked for a

drink of water. The widow was glad it was only water that he wanted,and was hurrying off to get it, when the old man called after her, andasked her to bring him a piece of bread.

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She thought of the little bit of meal and oil, and of her hungry boy,and of how hungry she was herself--and now, here was this tired oldman asking for food! It was really more than she could bear. She cameback toward him and said, "As the Lord liveth, I have not a cake, butonly a handful of meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a cruse; andbehold I am gathering two sticks that I may go and dress it for me and

my son, that we may eat it and die!"

The old man saw how hungry and desperate she looked; it may be thathe knew beforehand that she was; nevertheless, he said: "Fear not;but go and do as thou hast said: but make me thereof a little cakefirst, and bring it unto me, and after that make for thee and thy son.For thus saith the Lord God of Israel, The barrel of meal shall notwaste, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that the Lordsendeth rain upon the earth."

The widow did not altogether understand what he said, but somehowshe felt stronger and more brave. She went home quickly and baked a

little meal cake, and brought it to the old man, and asked him to cometo her house and rest. He went back with her, and then she set aboutbaking the rest of the meal and oil. She thought it would only make avery little cake, but the more meal she took out of the barrel, themore there was in it; and the more oil she poured from the cruse, theheavier it was to lift. She could hardly believe it, and yet she sawit was surely so. Then she went, crying with gladness and relief, andknelt beside the old man and thanked him, and begged him to stay withthem as long as he could. And he did stay, a good many months, and allthe time of the famine there was meal in the barrel and oil in thecruse.

By and by, the widow and her son learned that the old man's name was

Elijah, and that he was a Prophet of the Lord God of Israel.


If we sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, and then sailed as far east onthe Mediterranean Sea as we could, we should come to Asia. Then if wetravelled into Asia for a little distance, we should come to a smalllake. Long ago, this lake was called the Sea of Galilee, and one of thelittle towns on the shore was named Bethsaida. In this town, almost onethousand, nine hundred years ago, a boy lived and played and went toschool. His uncles had boats on the lake, for they were fishermen, andthe boy played in the boats, and sometimes his Uncle Andrew let him goout with him to the fishing.

Bethsaida was a busy, little town. There was always something to do.The lake and the boats and the fishermen and the nets were alwaysthere; then sometimes Roman soldiers marched into the town, andmerchants from far-off countries came to trade in the market-place. Nowand again men came who gathered crowds round them, and talked loud andshook their clenched fists and tore their long robes and kept the townrestless for days together.

The boy liked to go with his uncles to listen to these men. He couldnot understand what they were talking about, but the crowd buzzed and

jostled, and sometimes groaned and yelled. It was very exciting. UnclePeter was often angry about what he heard these men say, but UncleAndrew just stroked his beard and went back to the boats.

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The people called a man who spoke to them in this way a "Rabbi." Thismeant in their language, a master--a man who knew a great deal aboutsomething.

One day, a Rabbi came to Bethsaida, who acted differently from theothers. He did not make speeches in the market-place, and often when

people were crowding to hear him, he went away on the lake or into thehills. If they followed him, he would sometimes stand in a boat by theshore, or on a hillside, and talk to them; and he could make sickpeople well. He liked children; and the boy had seen him once stop inthe road and talk to a woman. That was a very queer thing for a greatRabbi to do.

The boy saw very little of his uncles after this new Rabbi came,for they followed him everywhere he went and seemed to be his closefriends. When they did come home they spoke of him as if they did notknow just what to say, yet always it seemed as if they could have saidmore if they had thought it well.

One day, the Rabbi and his friends had gone up into the hills, andpeople from the towns on the lake, and from the country round it, hadgone out to find him; for those who had seen him wanted nothing so muchas to see him again, and those who had not seen him could not restuntil they had found out what the others went to see. The boy had beenplaying in the boats that morning, which nowadays were most of the timepulled up on the shore, and when he saw some of the neighbours settingoff for the hills, he made up his mind to go too. First, though, hethought, "Uncle Andrew will be hungry, and so shall I," and he wenthome and got some food to take with him.

The way up through the hills was long and steep. The boy and his

neighbours were tired enough before they came in sight of a greatcrowd of people in a green hollow of the hills. It was strange but,though there were thousands of people all standing together, they didnot make a sound. As the boy came a little nearer, he heard the Rabbi'svoice in the stillness. He wondered why the people kept so quiet. Hedid not realize that he was keeping very quiet himself.

After a while he no longer heard the Rabbi's voice, and the peoplebegan to move and make a little murmur of talking. He crept through thecrowd toward the group round the Rabbi where his Uncle Andrew wouldbe. When he got there he found they were trying to think of a way tofeed all these hundreds of people who were tired and hungry, and milesaway from any place where they could get food. That reminded him of theluncheon he had brought, and he pushed the basket into Uncle Andrew'shand.

Uncle Andrew looked into the basket and smiled when he saw what it hadin it. Then he said to the Rabbi, "There is a lad here, which hath fivebarley loaves and two small fishes; but what are they among so many?"All the same, though, he held out the basket to the Rabbi, as if hereally thought it would be of some use to him.

The boy looked to see if the great Rabbi would be angry with UncleAndrew for saying such a useless thing, when all the others were tryinghard to think what could be done. But no; instead of that, he looked as

if something had made him delightfully happy, and he said, "Make themen sit down." And they did. Then the Rabbi blessed the five littleloaves and the two little fishes which he had taken out of the basket,

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and began to break them up and give them to those especial friendsof his who were always with him. And they carried them to the peoplesitting on the grass, and came back for more again and again.

And there always was more.

The boy went with Uncle Andrew, back and forth, again and again. He

wanted, more than anything, to help in some little way, if it wereonly to hold back his uncle's robe as he bent toward the people on theground.

When they would walk back for more food, he scarcely dared go so nearto the wonderful Rabbi. And yet--his heart was in his throat with thejoy and wonder of it--was it not his own barley bread and fish that theRabbi had been so glad to have, and with which he was feeding all thesethousands of hungry people?

Last of all, after every one was fed, the boy sat down close to hisuncle and they had some luncheon, too; but he could not take his eyes

from the Rabbi's face. He looked and looked until he could not see itany more, for he had gone to sleep in the warm grass.

When he waked the crowd was moving away, and his uncle was helpinggather up the food which was left. The Rabbi had gone away alone intothe hills.


It was spring-time, and eventide, in the thirty-third year of thatamazing time when God walked on the earth, not only everywhere, and inevery man as He does now, but Himself in the form of one Man.

Five of those men who loved Him best, and had been with Him most often,stood on the shore of the Sea of Galilee in the quick-coming darkness.Only a week or two before, they had seen their dear Lord nailed ona cross and left to die. And He had died. And when that happened,they felt they could not bear to live any longer. But--what do youthink?--first one, and then another, had seen Him alive again, hadtalked with Him, touched Him, and been taught by Him as they used tobe. When He was with them, they wished for nothing else; and when Hewas away they watched and longed for His return.

It had now been several days since He had been with them, and meanwhilethey had been going about among people who thought of them as men whohad wasted three years wandering round after another man, who wasalways about to do something but never did, and who, at last, had beenput to death by the government. I expect it made these men feel lonelythen, just as it makes us feel lonely now, to have to be with peoplewho think that Our Lord is not alive.

They did not know what to do with themselves as they stood on the shorethat evening. So, when one said, "I go a-fishing," all the rest saidthey would go, too. They were glad to be at work again, at somethingthey had done all their lives.

They started out on the dark water under the stars, and cast their

nets, but when they drew them in, they had caught nothing. They castthem again, and rowed here and there, and worked as hard as they could,but they got no fish for their pains, and the night was passing. One

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cannot tell whether or not they thought it strange, that men who hadmade sick people well, and cast out devils, could not now catch a fewfish. Whatever they thought, they were wet and tired, and hungry, andthe cold, gray early morning had come.

When it began to dawn, they rowed toward the shore. As they drew near,they saw some one standing on the beach who called to them and asked if

they had any fish. They had to say no. Then the Stranger said "Cast thenet on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find." They had castit, perhaps, in that very place during the night, but they did not sayso; they just cast the net. When they began to draw it, it was heavywith fish.

This was a strange thing. One of the men said very low, "It is theLord." Then the one who had suggested that they go fishing, threwhimself into the water and swam to the shore; he just could not wait.The others came in the boat, dragging the net full of fishes.

As all through the night everything had seemed to go wrong, so now,

everything was all right. On the shore was just the thing that tired,hungry, cold people want--a fire, burned down to glowing coals, withfish and bread baking on it.

But that was not the best thing they found on the shore.

The Stranger told them to draw up the net, and they did, and countedthe fish, one hundred and fifty-three. Then He told them to come andeat, and He said grace for them and waited on them, and they knew everyword and every gesture, but they could not speak. They just ate andrested and looked at Him. It made them so glad, and yet it almost madethem afraid, too, that He should care about their hard work, and comeand cook for them and wait on them Himself.

Perhaps it often happened in the years which followed, that when afriend, or a woman, or a slave came to these men, bringing food andcomfort for their weariness, that with them came also the memory ofthe dawn on the beach, and the fire of coals, and the blessing of aPresence more than theirs.




"She was one of those persons who possess, as their exclusive patrimony, the gift of practical arrangement. It is a kind of natural magic that enables these favoured ones to bring out the hidden capabilities of things around them; and particularly to give a look of comfort and habitableness to any place which, for

however brief a period, may happen to be their home."


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ONE would like to take the person Hawthorne is describing on a campingparty or a picnic. She would be equally agreeable to stay at home with,or to find at home when one came in. It is a sign that there is such aperson in a house when the whole family have to know where "Mother" is,as soon as they get inside the front door. Sometimes it is a sister or

an aunt, sometimes a father, who has to be found before one can settledown, but whatever the relationship, it is the person who makes us feelat home.

It is odd, is it not, the way we are always saying that we "feelat home," or "not at home," or "homesick," or that something is"homelike"? What do we mean by it, anyway? When people try to tellwhat home is, they usually make poor work of it. It is not in theleast necessary to tell what it is; a home is a thing to have, not totalk about. All I want to say here is that homes are not houses andfurniture, but people. There is an Indian proverb which says, "Thehearth is not a stone but a woman." Fathers and brothers have their own

share in making their homes, but mothers and daughters are more apt totake care of their homes and stay in them. So it has come to be thatmaking homes is a special and particular work of women.

Whatever work a girl may hope to do in the future, she will livesomewhere, and whatever that somewhere is like, it should be ashomelike as she can make it. This is partly on account of a good manypeople she will find who need a little pleasantness and comfort givento them, and partly because she will not be comfortable and happyherself unless she has something homelike about her. This is why it isa great advantage to be a woman; what power we have to make homes, wecarry with us. Hawthorne says that a woman, who is especially gifted inthis way, can make a home of any place, even though she is there but a

few hours--a hotel bedroom, for instance. The Indian proverb, however,goes even further. It says, not that a woman can make a home, but thatshe _is_ a home. That is, we should have the power to make people feelat home wherever _we_ are.

Most women, though, have something more to make a home out of thanthemselves. They have little houses or big houses to keep. When theybegin to do this they find themselves very glad of all the cleverness,and learning and experience which they can gather. It is much easier todo some of this gathering before one has a house of one's own, and waysof doing it lie all round us, often unrealized and unused.

Through most of our teens, school is the principal thing. Whether weare interested in it or not, it is then our recognized occupation.Nowadays, there are opportunities in many schools to learn thingshelpful in housekeeping. They are not only to be found in cookingand sewing classes. Chemistry and physics, which may one or other ofthem be required of you for college entrance examinations, are alsoof excellent service in housekeeping. Some of you will be in schoolswhere you can choose to some extent what courses you take. In thatcase, do not say chemistry is "messy," and physics is "too hard," butjust tussle with them for the sake of your home-making, as a boy wouldwho knew he was to be a physician or an engineer. I hardly dare tomention it, but detested arithmetic, learned in school, often afterwardsaves the peace of a household and the happiness of the housekeeper.

Personally, I have found what geometry I know useful on many unexpectedoccasions. But to turn to a more agreeable subject, I can recommend anycourse in light carpentry, for you will almost surely like it if you

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try it, and no one thing is more useful in a house--except perhaps,arithmetic.

If, on the contrary, you are in a school where there are no choices,or if you are obliged to narrow down to the requirements of a collegeentrance examination, the only thing to do is to keep in mind thethings which will be especially useful to you--physical sciences,

mathematics, manual training, domestic science; study some of them ifyou can, and, besides that, see what you can learn at home. I do notmean that the other things which you study at school are not useful inhome-making; they are. It is just that certain things are part of thespecial training for this work, and those named above are the ones moreusually taught in schools.

We turn now to the preparation which can be given to us, and whichwe give ourselves, at home. Ideally, this is the place to learnhome-making.

If we have a home, whether it is a palace or a room in a tenement, some

one in it "keeps house." If that person is one's mother, then is onethe normal and fortunate person who learns in the normal and fortunateway, from being with her. If she does some of the work of the househerself, and we help her, we learn far more than we realize until somemoment of emergency comes and we find that our eyes, and hands, andnoses, and muscles are trained for service.

If your mother merely directs the affairs of her house and the detailsare carried out by others, watch how she does it, for this may be theway in which you will keep house; and persuade her to let you try it,sometime when she is to be absent. In this case there will be some oneelse in the house from whom you will need to take a few lessons. Itwill perhaps be a housekeeper, or a very trusted maid. Make friends

with her and ask her questions. If she sees you want to learn and notto criticize she will become the most delighted, flattering teacher youever dreamed of.

If your mother does part or all of the housework it will probably beone of your appointed duties to assist her. If it should happen, asis sometimes the case, that you are not required to help with thehousework, then be a woman, and not a lap dog, and ask to help. In theproper story-book, a mother's response to such a request would be anaffectionate answer and much patient teaching, and I think, in many,many cases, that is the reply a daughter does receive. But just supposethat you are one of the other cases. I can imagine a variety of answersyou might get to "May I help?" One of them might be, "Go out of thekitchen, you'll spoil your clothes"; and others might be, "Don't botherme, I'm busy," or "Don't interrupt," or, "I'd rather do it myself thanput up with your clumsiness."

The first thing to do when one gets an answer like this is to goaway. The second is according to temperament; if you feel hurt anddiscouraged, then, try not to, or if you feel that your responsibilityis ended by the refusal of your offer, then don't think that; itisn't true. Think rather, that you may have offered just at the wrongmoment--you will find when you begin to keep house yourself that thereare a good many wrong moments--or that there may have been some simplerthing you could have done which would have been a greater help. We

might also consider the possibility that our way of helping has notbeen quite agreeable on some former occasion. Perhaps, alas, we may beclumsy, or we may be slow, or we may be more nuisance than help just

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at first. After we have gone away and thought ourselves quiet, then wemust do that most difficult and heroic of things--try again to help theperson by whom we have been rebuffed.

You see I speak entirely of your side in this matter. That is becauseneither you nor I may be permitted to pass judgment on your mother.She is like some one about whom we have read a short story, we only

know one little period of her life and only a few of her thoughts andfeelings even then. She must always remain a bit of a mystery to us,because we can never know very much about what happened before we wereborn.

There is a thing which makes helping mothers difficult, that one mustguard oneself against, especially because it is so natural and soinsidious. It is especially a snare when we learn about housekeepingoutside of our homes, though it very frequently lies in wait for usanyway. It is the desire to reform our homes and our mothers, andthat instantly. I venture to say that the trouble with this lies inthe _instantly_. The ways you are taught at school may be better than

mother's ways; but, on the contrary, mother's ways may be the result ofpractical experience, and they may be an adaptation to the practicalneeds and tastes of her family. It may be that the things you learn arebetter adapted to your own generation and your own future housekeepingthan they are to your parents' tastes and needs. You are the future,but remember that your parents are the past, without which you wouldnever have been. There is this also to consider, that as we grow older,we grow toward orthodoxy. We place our faith in the "new thing" of thehour, and in a little while, find that it was proved impracticable tencenturies ago. While we are deciding that the old people we know arenarrow-minded old fogies, behold, some girl or boy tells us that thereason we do not believe in their theory of the universe is because weare "old-fashioned." To you, young, thoughtful, and alive, belongs the

belief that you are born to make the world better; and this is true.Not, however, by tearing down is this accomplished, but by buildingup. And the building is done by laying in a lifetime one small stonein the structure, ages old, which has its foundations in the deeps ofthe universe, and upon whose finished spires shall shine the glory ofHeaven.

But there--it is of some practical ways of helping mother, and therebylearning housekeeping, that I wish to speak just now. They belong tothe class of things called little services, but I can assure you, theyare great, in tact, and helpfulness and love. They are homely; but theyare just the sort of things angels would like to do. Dusting is oneof them, the little everyday dusting which makes such a difference inthe tidiness of the house, and perhaps takes five minutes, or less,to a room. With this goes taking up crumbs in the dining room, witha sweeper or dustpan and brush, and arranging flowers and wateringplants. Tidying means removing dirt and litter, and putting eachthing in the place where it belongs. Tidiness is not a housekeeper'ssuperstition; it is a mechanical device for invoking the spirit ofrestfulness.

Another homely thing always needing to be done is mending. It is, bynature, incidental work, and therefore it is especially grateful tothe housekeeper to have it done by an incidental helper. I do not meanmerely darning stockings and sewing on buttons though that is the

larger part of it, but also, mending which is done with hammer andtacks, or glue, or perhaps a varnish brush. I mean all those odd jobswhich pursue the busy housewife in the hours when she ought to rest.

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Get your mother to write a list of these odd jobs on her memorandumpad, as she sees or thinks of them during the day, then see how manyof them you can find a way to do.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke


If your household does not include a waitress, there is a class ofsmall services which need to be done before each meal. One is not quiteso sure to be at home at meal times, as if one were a boy, but one canarrange to be. Certain things are needed on the table which come fromthe refrigerator or the cellar, cool things which should be put on atthe last moment. The cook has already fifty things to do at the lastmoment, and few things relieve her more than to know that she need notthink of the table until she puts the meal upon it. I saw a girl, once,looking at the dining-room table, and tapping out some sort of rhythmwith four finger-tips against her cheek. She owned up that she wassaying to herself, "Bread, butter, milk and water"--four things which

she had made it her business to see on the table before each meal.Sometimes there were jelly and pickles and other relishes to put on,but these four, which she counted off on her fingers and her cheek,were the essentials.

Wiping and putting away the dishes is a small service which one can dooften and acceptably. It is elsewhere described, but is also mentionedhere because it belongs to this list of opportunities.

If your mother, or whoever does the cooking in your house, likes to behelped with it, there will be many little things which you can do, likebeating eggs for instance, or shelling peas. No one can tell you whatthey are, though, except the person who is cooking.

How many, and which of these small services you are able to do, dependon how long your school hours are, and on what sort of health you have,and on how much of the housework is done by the family. It is not fatalif you do not do any of them, provided your reason is not laziness orselfishness.

There is another group of small things, helpful, but more personalto yourself, which you are less likely to be prevented from doing.You probably have a room, or half a one, and a closet, and bureaudrawers, and certainly clothes, which are your own. Possession meansresponsibility. If we find this sharp-cornered foundation-stone oftruth in the depths of our own bureau drawers, it is less likely tofall heavily on us later on. Our own things and the places in whichthey are kept should be our own care, and not another's.

It may not be your business to do the periodical sweeping in your room,but the daily dusting and tidying the household authorities will beglad to have you do.

You cannot find a better way to learn to make beds than to make yourown, for in that case you get the benefit of the insufficient airing orthe crease, or the crumb, which you have let go. If, for some reason,you cannot make your bed every day, try to do it on Sunday. It is acustom of gentleness from one woman to another.

Keeping a room in order is accomplished by the same means that anytidiness is brought about, that is, by having a place for things and

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seeing that they are there. The things that most girls want in theirrooms are apt to be hard to keep in order. They are things which ourheartless elders call "trash." I would not undertake to say what agirl's room should or should not contain, but I would ask her notto have so many things that they are either never neat or else atormenting care; not to hang things on her walls which are vulgar orsilly; and not to leave her clothes and little adornments for other

people to put away. Keeping one's own possessions in order is areasonable service to others, and one of the natural, gradual ways oflearning home-making.

Will you turn over a few pages and read the suggestions about thefittings and care of closets you will find in the chapter on upstairswork? Bureau drawers, however, are not mentioned elsewhere than here,for I consider them the private property of individuals, to be caredfor by their owners and not to be intruded upon by others except inemergency. Articles put in drawers should be classified as far aspossible, and things used least often should be put in drawers leasteasy to get at. Suppose, for instance, a bureau has four drawers, the

lowest is probably deepest and requires stooping to open it. In it cango best waists, and sashes, and girdles, and scarfs, and fluffy objectswhich should lie loosely. In the third drawer underclothes might beput; to be folded and packed close does not hurt them. As they arethings which go into the wash, they should be worn in rotation, andthis is accomplished without thought or trouble if we pile all thegarments of the same kind together and always put the newly washedones on the top or the bottom of the pile, and take the ones we are towear from the opposite place. It takes a great many troublesome wordsto describe this action, which is very simple, and almost immediatelybecomes mechanical. In the second drawer of this possible bureau mightgo collars, and handkerchiefs, and gloves, and ties, and things whichmust be kept uncrumpled. If one has ample room, pretty boxes are good

to keep these things in, and they make for neatness. If one musteconomize space, it is better to have some squares of silk, or prettycoloured linen or silkoline in which one's possessions can be laidflat, and then the four corners of the wrapper folded over upon them.I have found these more convenient to get into and more easily washedthan regular veil and necktie and glove cases.

The top drawer is the one which locks most securely, because it isunder the top of the bureau, instead of under another drawer whichmight be removed. It is therefore the one in which people usuallykeep the things which they especially value, and their pocketbooks orhandbags. If a part of the top drawer is set apart for the collars,ties, handkerchiefs, hair ribbons and belts which are in immediate use,it will assist immensely to keep a room and bureau top neat. One doesnot wish to put things, which have been worn, away with things whichare perfectly fresh, and one wants the belt and ribbons which one wearsfor two or three days in succession close at hand. If they are foldedor rolled up to keep them shapely, and put in a space in the top drawerwhich has been chosen for the purpose, time and tidying will be saved.The space will need emptying out frequently, but that can be done onthose Saturdays when one is seized with a sudden clearing-up fit.

Care of our clothes is not directly related to housekeeping--it isonly a collateral relation. A neat house, however, is marred if thehousekeeper herself is untidy. For our immediate purpose, though, the

point is, that the habit of caring for our clothes, and the deftnessand inventiveness which such care requires, are qualities constantlyuseful in housekeeping. I met a woman once, who boasted that she did

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not know how to hold a needle, but give her a hammer and nails and shecould do anything. I happened to see her later with a hammer and nails,and she was clutching the hammer close to the head, and pounding innails with more disregard for the help of leverage, than if she hadbeen a cave-woman pounding a stake with a stone. Some people can hammerwho cannot sew; and some people can sew who cannot hammer; some peoplecan do neither, and some people can do both. But the fact remains that

if we can use our hands and heads cleverly for one thing, we have abetter chance of using them cleverly for another; and blacking shoes,and binding skirts, and mending stockings, and putting in ruchings,are steps in an apprenticeship to more interesting and clever work.Incidentally, too, we are giving ourselves that exquisite daintinesswhich is one of a girl's charms.

At least one means of learning something of housekeeping lies opento every creature. That means is an observing interest. We neverremain entirely ignorant of the things in which we are interested. Wegather ideas about them everywhere, and in the most unexpected andunintentional places. If we sit at tables where the meals are carefully

served and well cooked, that privilege teaches many things aboutserving and cooking. There is as much to learn in a cheap restaurant,if we watch how things are done, and think out the reason for themethods. If we watch a servant or a housewife doing work well, we neednever again be entirely ignorant of how to do that work. If we read abook or hear a lecture, or overhear a scrap of talk in a street carwhich contains a thought to help us or an unusual method to be tried,it ought to stick to our memories as if magnetized. Think in themorning that you want to know something about the cats in Thibet, andalmost surely before night, you will have heard or read something aboutthem. We know how often this is true of remote and unusual affairs; itis infinitely more true of intimate daily ones. It is a great blessing;a means of getting knowledge without other struggle than remembering

what we want to know. If it is not a royal road, it is at least a royalby-path, to learning.

Some day, you will discover that you are "grown up," and if you havelearned what you could and helped when you could, you will discover,too, that you have the gift and power to make a home--that you are awoman, who is not a stone but a hearth.





"The lot has fallen unto me in a fair ground, yea, I have a goodly heritage."

THERE is a deep surprise and joy in these words, which grows toexultation. They might have been spoken by one who had climbed a height

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to look for the first time on the place where henceforth his life andwork were to be, and saw in the curve of many-folded, blue hills,white roads with crops warming in the fields on either hand, woods andstreams, laden orchards, and vines in garlands.

"It is a fair ground." Then--"yea, I have a goodly heritage." Thereis joy in beauty, and in possession--and more than that. There is

exultation in the vision of seed-time and harvest, of growing beautyand usefulness, of life renewed; and in the strength and power to workfor all this and to achieve it.

It is not fanciful to say that a woman may regard her heritage in somesuch way as this. The childhood, and the homes of the world are hers,and her work is the making of men and women. If she chooses to say thatGod has exalted His handmaiden, who is able to deny it?

The particular work of women is not just like any other work; indolenceand failure in doing it, however, have been too often excused onaccount of this fact. Their work is yearly becoming more and more

allied with other commercial, intellectual and moral activities.Even their housekeeping is no longer a disagreeable thing kept outof sight as much as possible, as the plumbing used to be. Its variedproblems are being recognized and studied. Nobody denies that theyare difficult, but it is not reasonable to suppose that they are themost difficult in the world, nor that they are unsolvable. One reasonwhy they are difficult is that they are an attempt to establish orderand law, without destroying individuality and freedom; and anotherreason is that the housewife exercises her profession chiefly for thebenefit of her own family. If the physician had to doctor himself, thepreacher preach to his wife, and the teacher teach his own children,their professions might be in as much confusion as the housekeepingprofession is. The efforts to do away with these difficulties by

having families live together, eat together, or do anything else in awholesale way, have not succeeded and have led in a wrong direction.What is wanted is a way to preserve the separate family and theseparate family home, not a way to make them into something else.

Difficulty is a characteristic of their work which should appeal towomen. They are seeking to do difficult things. They are seeking toprove that there is no profession, nor labour, nor art in which theycannot succeed. In many cases they have succeeded admirably; it hasnot proved the point they set out to prove however, but another. Whatthey have proved by their activities is that they are amply able tosolve the problems and accomplish the organization of the work which isespecially their own. They cannot get it believed that they are equalto anything while their own work lies undone--while they wilfully leavethe home or helplessly stay in it.

Things which we are proud to do in other fields, we neither see nor doin our own. For the sake of a college degree, or a paper to be readbefore a club, we delve in difficult books; yet we do not study, noreven read about our own work. We would be proud to invent a flyingmachine, or a mud-digger, yet most of the inventions to aid houseworkare made by men. We aspire to be stockbrokers, merchants, accountants,bankers--while housekeeping finance has become a stock joke. We areeager to study social problems and take up settlement work, but we donot think it worth while to study our own cooks. We feel in ourselves

a power to organize and betake us to the club, and leave the cook andthe nursemaid to organize our homes and our children's lives. We haveraised the woman's work of teaching and of nursing into excellent

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professions, and yet we are ready to sit down and cry before thedifficulties of housekeeping.

Unpleasant and monotonous things, which we claim make our own workunbearable, we ignore in occupations which we covet or admire. UnderMr. Kipling's influence we cultivate an enthusiasm for machinery andengineering, but we neglect his constantly emphasized lesson that the

digging of a canal or the building of a bridge involves humble toil andunsightly details far beyond any we may encounter in peeling potatoesor washing dishes. We look at the wide, slow waters which have been letinto the land and they silence us; we follow with our eyes the greatspan of the bridge and hold our breath as if it were music. It is rightthat we wonder and admire. They are great things. But see that womanbeside you who is looking at the bridge with such especial interest. Isthe bridge any more wonderful than her son, who built it? He is whatshe has built. It seems to me, one might peel several tons of potatoesas a thank-offering for a son.

But I will not take such high ground as to suppose that we might be

willing to do some hard and disagreeable things just because we feelvery earnestly the privilege and glory of being women. Much moreordinary considerations urge us to get about our work. If the engineerson of whom we were speaking said, "Estimates make me nervous," or, "Ihate dealing with dirty, foreign labourers," or, "You can't expect meto concern myself with the nasty river-bottom when I have the arch of abridge in my mind," or, "This work is so monotonous, I certainly havea right to one day a week when I can go to town and shop"--if he saidthese things, we should say he was--effeminate.


Our times are so quick that, if we went earnestly to work, the next

generation would see nothing in the remarks quoted above, to suggest a_woman_.

And do you know that this work of ours is a profession in which wecan be as clever, and independent, and advanced, and emancipated as weplease, and no man will like us the less for it. They like us to beinconsistent and unexpected, and they do not like us to know more thanthey do. But if we can keep house thriftily and comfortably and notbother them with it, they like that. In this we are not their rivals.They like our charming unexpectedness better elsewhere than in thebutcher's bills; and they love the inconsistency of the woman who, inthe home which her cleverness and toil have made peaceful and adequate,is yet full of pleasure and wonder at the things her husband or her sonhas accomplished.

This is my thought of our fair heritage of clever, helpful and devotedwork, with its goodly promise of a harvest of people whom we havehelped to be happier and better. Such is the country of my Vision.



IF WE want something, we plan to get it. We say, "I will do this, not

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that; I will use my time, as I have little strength; I will give mystrength, as I have little money; or, I will give my money as I havelittle time to give." A plan is merely a series of choices, a record ofthings taken and things left for the sake of obtaining some end or offollowing some ideal.

If we wish the people for whom we keep house to be well and happy, and

good, we shall plan to make them so, as earnestly and definitely as ifwe were making a train schedule, or drawing the plans of a house, orwriting the outline of a book.

The object of a housekeeping plan may be an ideal, but the plan isbased on a definite, practical fact--the amount of income. The planitself is the record of the choices made in the outlay of that amountof income.

The first thing for a family to do when they wish to make a plan, isto impress on their minds, not what they think they will have or whatthey think they ought to have, but the definite amount of money which

they have. Some people gamble who do not go to races or play cards.They bet on futurity by spending something they expect to make, or riska purchase on the security of Aunt Maria's usual Christmas present.The indications of this sort of gambling are the casual remarks onehears too often; "I just had to have it," or "We could not keep upour position without it," or, "I can't have my children dressed likebeggars," or "It was awfully expensive, but I will save on somethingelse." They are silly words and not honest. Silly, because they meanthat some momentary self-indulgence has been thought worth the priceof long unrest and anxiety; not honest, because if people have whatthey cannot pay for, they have what some one else has paid for as trulyas if they had carried off a parcel belonging to the person standingbeside them at a counter. In that matter of Aunt Maria, there is an

extra offense. A gift should bring some special pleasure, or meet somespecial emergency. Counted on, or spent beforehand, it gives no happysurprise, no unexpected pleasure or relief; and what is worse, AuntMaria gets no more happiness from making the gift than she would frompaying the interest on a mortgage. Counting on gifts is a mean trick.If a child's parents do this, they cannot reasonably blame him forcalculating the inheritance he will acquire at their death.

The income from some kinds of work is of necessity uncertain. Thismakes the housekeeping plan especially difficult. Probably the wisestway to meet this is to pretend that one's income is an amount somewhatunder one's brightest hopes, and to live on that amount. In case of adisappointment, there is not then so large a deficit to struggle with;or, if the hopes come true, the surplus can very easily be put intoa needed garment or a needed pleasure, or perhaps into the savingsbank. Some people manage uncertain incomes by the month instead of theyear. The trouble with this is that there is likely to be "always afeast or a famine," and that is demoralizing. As far as possible, afamily should have an established style of living, to be changed onlygradually, as an assured income increases.

This thing called the style of living is the insidious, untiring rivalof that hard, cold fact, the amount of income. The two are foreverquarrelling. Logically, the amount of income should settle the style ofliving, but often people spend weary lives trying to stretch the hard

fact to fit its ever-increasing rival. This conflict is the source ofmost household troubles, and quarrels, and sorrows. What is the matter?Why is one less ashamed to wear one's heart on one's sleeve than a

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patch? Why would you rather owe the grocer, than say to your friend, "Ican't afford it?" Why, when I say I am not ashamed to be poor, does theblood rise in my cheeks to belie my words? Poverty is not a badge offailure and laziness. It is often a decoration for high principle, orfor noble self-sacrifice,--it is the lady-love of saints.

Very soon and very often in housekeeping, whatever may be the income,

the conflict will arise between needs and wants and the financialability to supply them. For this struggle we must gather our commonsense and courage. They will help us to choose the things which reallymatter, and to laugh at ourselves for pretending to have what we havenot.

* * * * *

Some husbands and wives make the financial plans of the familytogether. In other cases, the husband decides what amount of the incomeshould be spent on the table, and the wife plans only the expenditureof that. The households in which the wife buys and the husband pays

without consultation or agreement, exist, but let us hope they arefew. Then, there is the household in which the woman is financier,and the man lives on an allowance. And, of course, there are a greatnumber of households which are not complete families, but are groupsof people, related or unrelated, who make their homes together, and inwhich the division of income is made by one person, or by the group, asthey wish or are compelled by circ*mstances.

Plans for a whole income are considered here because they include theproblems and details of less elaborate plans.

As has been said, the first thing for a family to do is to find outtheir definite income, irrespective of Aunt Maria. Incomes of all sizes

are lived on in some way. The way which their income will cover, is thestyle of living suitable for a family. If the family income pinches,however, and there is some way of increasing it which does not destroythe home life, nor work some member of the family to death, then itis well to take that way. But only in cases verging on starvation,should an increase in income be made by the homemaker leaving herhousekeeping, or the breadwinner working eighteen hours a day.

When the amount of the income is found out, the next thing is todivide it among the family needs in a reasonable proportion. Thisproportion is decided in the first place according to necessity, and inthe second, according to taste.

Let us take for illustration a family with an income of $2,000 a year.And then let us take, from Mrs. Ellen H. Richards's book called "TheCost of Living," the following proportions for an income of that amount.

1/4 for food. 1/6 " rent. 3/20 " running expenses. 3/20 " clothes. 1/4 " miscellaneous expenses.

Translated into dollars this is:

$500 for food. 400 " rent. 300 " running expenses.

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300 " clothes. 500 " miscellaneous expenses.

The next thing is to find out whether this is a possible proportion forus, if this income is our own.

Food, $500 a year, $9.61 a week, $1.37 a day--we shall probably think

this a possible allowance.

Rent $400 a year, $33 a month--here there may be a difficulty.

If we own a house in a country town or a suburb, we can probably paythe taxes and make repairs, and have something left from $400. Ifwe rent a house in a country town or in a not too popular suburb wecan perhaps get it for less than $400, but in the latter case, theremainder may need to be used in carfares if some member of the familyhas to go to the city every day. If we live in a flat in a large city,it is an uninviting one that can be had for $33 a month, and even so,nothing is left for carfares. Regular carfares are usually reckoned in

the department with the rent, because the place where one's home issituated determines their amount.

Here are two cases, then, in which the proportion for rent does notwork. The first, in which there is more money than is necessary toprovide a dwelling, is easily arranged. The surplus can be used formore clothes, or more "help," or to satisfy more of the unfailingsupply of miscellaneous needs, or it can be put by for future needs.

The second case, in which we feel we must have a $40 flat and haveonly $33 with which to pay for it, is not as hopeless as it looks. Forthe next thing in the table of proportions is $300 a year for runningexpenses, that is, wages, fuel, light, water, etc. Here is at once a

partial solution of the rent difficulty. In that forty-dollar flat,heat and water are supplied. If we use gas for cooking, $7 a monthwill be an average gas bill for a careful family, that is $84 a year.This amount will likewise cover the expense if we use gas for lightand coal for the range. Then if we pay three dollars a week to aninexperienced girl, or $1.50 a day for two days a week to a combinationwasherwoman and scrubwoman, that will be $156 a year. Our runningexpenses will then be $240 a year. The $60 saved will pay $5 a monthon the rent, and we shall then need only $2 a month more to secure theforty-dollar flat.

Next, $300 for clothes. In a year when things have lasted over, we maybe able to get the $2 a month for the rent from this department. If, onthe contrary, there is a new overcoat, or a new street dress to buy, ora new member of the family to clothe, then it cannot be spared.

The next division is $500 for holidays, recreations, books, charity,savings, doctors' bills and all unclassified expenses. This is thedivision which is most difficult to manage. If we think we cannot sparethat $24 from the clothes department, we shall need to consider verycarefully whether we take it from this, or from the food department.We shall have to consider the price of food in the neighbourhood; thehealth of the family; how much they need a holiday; whether thereis any special purpose for which we must save; whether there is somepiece of furniture much needed; whether there is a present which we

greatly desire to give. And these are only samples of the things whichwill need to be considered. A choice must be made, though, howeverdifficult, for when one item of expenditure in the family life is

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exceptionally large, there is but one thing to do, that is, to decide,reasonably and carefully, in what other department of living theexpenditure can be lessened.

In this case of a high rent which has just been described, see in thetable below what has happened.

+-----------------+------+------+----------+---------+---------------+ | |_Food_|_Rent_|_Running |_Clothes_|_Miscellaneous | | | | | Expenses_| | Expenses_ | |-----------------+------+------+----------+---------+---------------+ | Mrs. Richards's | 500 | 400 | 300 | 300 | 500 | | Division | | | | | | +-----------------+------+------+----------+---------+---------------+ | Division | 500 | 480 | 240 | 300 | 480 | | for high rent | | | | | | +-----------------+------+------+----------+---------+---------------+ 80 60 20

The high rent is balanced by a saving in running expenses and in someitem of miscellaneous expense.

This is merely a suggestion of the way in which a housekeeping planis worked out. Every family has its own needs and wants, and itsincome must be proportioned to suit them as far as possible. If yourincome is larger than the one used as an example, you will find thatthe department of miscellaneous expenses will grow and need to besubdivided many times--you will have more concerts than cabbages--if,on the contrary, your income is less than the example, you will findthat the food and rent departments will begin to swallow up the otherdepartments.

An example of the extreme of this is exhibited by a budget ofhousekeeping expenses given by Mr. Arthur Morrison in the _FortnightlyReview_ a few years ago, for a family with an income of £1 10s. aweek--about $7.50 a week and $390 a year.

s. d.

Rent 7 0 Meat and fish 5 5 Bread and flour 2 1½ Groceries 1 8 Cheese, butter, eggs, bacon 1 11 Green groceries 1 3 Fuel 2 0 Oil, etc 1 7½ Clothes 2 0 Club and insurance 1 0 Beer and tobacco 2 9 Balance 1 3 -------- £1 10s.

This table, roughly calculated, gives the following proportions:

A little more than 2/5 for food.

A little more than 1/5 for rent. A little more than 2/25 for running expenses. A little more than 1/15 for clothes.

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A little more than 2/15 for other expenses.

Nearly half the income was used for food; the same proportion for rentas it is reckoned should be paid by a family with an income of $2,000;and about a third ($2.50 in our money) was left for fuel, clothes, andevery other need or want. Yet Mr. Morrison says that if the wife isnot lazy and the husband does not drink, a family can live in London

on this income and manage to be well and decent. "Pretty hard!"--yes."Pretty sordid!"--no. Courage and perseverance and self-denial madethat budget, such as most of us save up for heroic occasions, and wouldnot think of expending upon marketing and meal getting.

One cannot be as definite about housekeeping plans as one would like tobe in dealing with such a definite and practical subject. In the natureof things, each family must decide on the purposes for which its incomeis used, and on the amount to be devoted to each. I cannot, however,emphasize too strongly the necessity of definiteness on the part ofthose dealing with their own actual incomes. A carefully thought outplan of expenditure, written down and earnestly adhered to, is a family

backbone. A first plan has to be made somewhat in the dark, but everyyear brings enlightenment and confidence. Though the purposes for whichtheir income is used are for each family to decide upon, yet I ventureto lay stress upon three purposes which are often subdivisions of thatgeneral and entirely voluntary department of miscellaneous expenses.For convenience, I shall call them, "Allowances," "The Tenth," and"Savings."

There is an odd sort of innate privacy about money matters. Childrenare taught that it is ill-bred to open other peoples' pocketbooks orcheckbooks, or to ask them what their possessions cost. As they growup they find that business affairs are considered confidential, andthat no honourable person investigates another's money affairs without

some authority. It is desirable that these rules of honour should bepreserved, and one simple way to help in this is to arrange that eachmember of the family has an allowance, if it is only five cents aweek--an allowance for which he is responsible to himself alone. Theseallowances should go down in the family accounts as "Allowances," thedetails belong to the individual. The members of families in which thisarrangement is made should conscientiously keep their private expenseswithin the amount agreed upon, for allowances not only teach theright of individual privacy, they teach that old and difficult lessonthat "you can't eat your cake and have it too";--that one can't havemarbles and candy the same week. An allowance also supplies each personwith something to give away, which is really his to give. He may nothave earned it by work, but he has earned it by going without somethinghe would have liked to spend it for. There is yet another purposewhich allowances serve. They help to prevent the failure of a plan ofexpenditure. For they keep a strict and careful plan from becoming agalling chain. They prevent the absorption of personal privacy andfreedom by the regulations of the family as a group against which theindividual, sooner or later, invariably rebels.

"The Tenth" is that part of the family income, more or less than anactual tenth, which is given away. It is not mine to offer advice asto the size or use of this division. I merely emphasize its necessity.It is the small thing, which keeps meanness and bitterness out of themanagement of scanty means, and selfishness and brutality out of the

management of ample means. Establish a give-away division in your plan,for the sake of your own disposition, if you are not urged to it by anyother consideration.

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Next to this division, which is considered the generousdivision, comes one which has a less agreeable reputation, butundeservedly--"Savings." Many people who will say giving is a goodthing, will deny that saving is. And is it? Why? What is it for? It isto provide those who suffer adversity, or who live to old age, againstbecoming a "public charge"; or against dependence upon relatives and

friends. There is a fine honour in not taking the risk of these things.One ought to be willing to struggle hard and self-denyingly to saveoneself and one's family from becoming burdens to other people.

Perhaps you say, "But why pinch and save for something which may neverhappen?" If you speak as one solitary individual, it is true, you maydie before old age; it is the rare family, however, in which somemember does not need a provision for a last period of helplessness.Then, there are those things called adversities, and those thingscalled opportunities, which turn to adversities if they cannot be used.Do you know many people, who have not at some time been in a difficultywhere they needed money, or who have not had a chance that depended on

an outfit or a pledge? Is it reasonable to expect to run to some oneelse for help at such times?

And, by the way, to whom would you run? To the friend who is theopen-handed, good companion, or to the careful, farseeing friend?Of the two, which is the more to be depended upon, the more finelyhonourable, the more worthy to be imitated?

There are two very usual ways of keeping savings. Life insurance isone of them. It is more than a way of keeping savings, for in mostcases, the amount finally received is more than the amount paid in.It has this advantage, and also the advantage that the savings thuslaid by are only available at a time of great need--sickness, accident

or death--or sometimes, after a long period of years. It has thecorresponding disadvantages that these savings are not available forsmall needs, and also that they may be lost, if for any reason thesubsequent premiums cannot be paid.

A savings-bank account is another way of keeping savings. Savingsbanks will take money in very small sums and will pay a reasonableinterest on it. This method of keeping savings has the advantagethat the money can be drawn whenever it is needed, but the resultingdisadvantage that the account may be small at the moment of suddenneed. If it is possible, as it often is, to have both a life insuranceand a savings-bank account, a household may feel well protected againstcalamity, and well provided against sudden wants.

If some member of a family has a life insurance, a definite premiumwill have to be paid at definite times. A savings-bank account is notso insistent. But to succeed in saving and to do it with as littlediscomfort as possible, it is better to put ten dollars or ten centsinto an account on the first day of the month, and forget about it,than to save five cents in carfare on Monday, one cent on a newspaperon Tuesday, ten cents on lunch on Wednesday, and so on.

You will say that it amounts to the same thing. That if that moneyis put into the bank, all these little pinching economies will haveto be borne as a consequence. That is logical, but only to a certain

extent true in practice. In one case, that of the definite amount putaway monthly, the money is saved because it is not there to spend; inthe other case, it is there, but is saved with the thought of saving.

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The latter method means going without everything that possibly can begone without. It is the method by which one fills a Lenten mitebox--itis disciplinary, that is, it is meant to hurt a little, and it does.People do not keep Lent all the year, however; it is an especialseason for an especial purpose. At some time of serious difficulty inhousehold affairs, it may become necessary to save in this Lentenway, but the usual, regular sort of saving, which is a duty for life

with most of us, should be done as far as possible by a decision oncecarefully made, and afterward automatically carried out.

I wish I could in some way show the pleasant side of the matter ofsavings. There is much comfort and gladness in the possession of asmall reserve fund. The mere sight of the big, ugly Savings Bankwhich contains it can give new courage. We look up at the building inpassing and know we have there the chance to start again if we are notsucceeding; a holiday if we very much need one; weeks to recover in ifwe are ill; protection from dependence upon other people; the power tokeep some one we love from suffering; and the joy of sometimes giving agift.

* * * * *

And now, a word more on the subject of choices.

In a little town I know, there live two old women. One will not goto prayer meeting because she cannot afford to put five cents intothe collection basket; the other goes every week and contributes onebright penny. She devoutly brightens it on a piece of old carpet beforeshe starts. As it is such a little gift, it must be made as fair aspossible.

There is a stern business principle in the whole of life. It is that

law of choice of which we spoke at first. If we have a thing, we mustin some way pay for it, we cannot have the thing and its price too. Wepay in various commodities: in work, in money, in time, in ability,in thoughtfulness, in suffering; but in some way we pay. It is not aharsh and ungenerous law; it is to be rejoiced in. God meant us to beself-supporting, not objects of charity.

The trouble with His law is made by us. Some of us try to get out ofpaying at all; some of us are angry because we would rather pay insomething we have not. We would rather pay for food and clothes withmoney only, instead of with a little money and much thought and labour.We would like to buy our friend a birthday gift, instead of writingthat birthday letter which costs us thoughtfulness and an ache in ourpride. Because we cannot afford a holiday, we will not pay for comfortand pleasantness at home with the coin of gaiety, or a favouritedessert, or a new book from the Library.

Each of you, and I, whatever our incomes, have our choices of this kindto make, and the price of them to pay.

* * * * *

--It is prayer-meeting night. Shall we stay at home?--Or rub up apenny?

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WHEN a family have made a plan of yearly expenditure, they must havesome way of testing at short intervals whether they are keeping to it

or not, and some record by which at the end of the year they can tellwhether their plan is a good one. These tests and records are furnishedby _accounts_.

Accounts are as old as the brick books of Assyria. They have been foundnecessary to business transactions for ages. One of the reasons thathousekeeping does not receive its proper recognition as a business anda profession is that it does not bear the stamp of either in the formof accurate accounts and statistics. Perhaps these are lacking becauseso many women are driven to tears or fury by accounts. It is oddthat they are, too, for they keep golf and tennis scores, and devotethemselves to whist, and are madly fascinated with jig-saw puzzles, and

all these things are a good deal like accounts.

A favourite excuse for not keeping accounts is this: "I have justso much, and I can't spend what I haven't, so what's the use?" Thisignores two things. The first is, that spending a little more thanone's income, and thus gradually running up a debt, is an extremelyeasy thing to do. The second is, that people who do not plan theirexpenditures, deprive themselves of the chance to choose what theirexpenditures shall be made for. If you plan to have strawberries andcream on the first Monday in February, and bread and tea on the nextSaturday, and you like that, then there is nothing more to say--exceptto hope for improvement in the next generation. If, however, in theexuberance of appetite or hospitality you have strawberries and cream

on the first Monday in February, and are awfully surprised to find youcan only afford bread and tea on Saturday--then you need to realizethat you have deprived yourself of the freedom of choice, whether rightor wrong, and that you had better keep a few accounts. The moment afamily have one penny more than they need to buy the food which willkeep them alive, there comes to be an element of choice in the spendingof that penny. When the penny grows to an amount not easily calculatedmentally, that freedom of choice is only obtainable by accepting thebondage of some sort of accounts. It is like the bondage of the truth,it makes us free.

There are many methods and variations of methods of keeping accounts.Mr. Morrison's woman with thirty shillings a week undoubtedly kept heraccounts in her head, but she kept them. Many women keep accounts witha collection of small boxes or envelopes, each marked with the nameof the commodity for which the money within is to be used. They findit easier to calculate with the actual money than with figures. It iswell enough if they cannot do better, but it is primitive. I supposethat some six or seven thousand years ago, it was the latest thing inaccount keeping. No woman wants to be as far behind the style as that.

Accounts kept in figures have several obvious advantages. The symbolof five thousand dollars--$5,000--takes less room than that amount inmoney, and is no temptation to a thief. Another advantage is, thatthese symbols of money do not have to be paid out, but remain in a

book, and furnish a record of just what has been bought and what moneyremains. They also make it clear to the owner of the money whethershe has had what she most needed or not. That is one of the reasons

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accounts are so disagreeable; they often say, "You made a fool ofyourself that time."

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

The Account Book]

There are two sides in accounts, which are usually represented byopposite pages in a book. The right-hand page is the _Credit_ side; theleft hand page is the _Debit_ side. On the right hand, or Credit, pageare written the sums of money we have or acquire. Credit is relatedto the word creed. The reason for this relationship is, that a creditpage represents how much we may be believed in financially; and to whatamount people believed in us who paid us for work; and to what amountpeople believed in us who gave us gifts in money. On the left-hand, orDebit, page are written the sums of money we have paid out. The worddebit is related to due and duty and _devoir_. Therefore, on this pagego the amounts which have been _due_ to others for the things which wehave had, and which it has been our _duty_ to pay because we have had

these things. If we are honourable people, we will do our _devoir_ inthis matter.

At the end of a day, or a week, or a month, as seems best, the accountis balanced. This word _balanced_ is a metaphor. By its means thecredit and the debit pages are changed into the pans of a pair ofscales, and the account is balanced when they hang even. That is, whenthe items on the debit page add up to the same amount that the itemson the credit page add up to, the account balances. But suppose thepages do not add up to the same amount--they rarely do, and they rarelyshould--What then? Then the metaphor of the balance suggests what todo. If one scalepan is lighter than the other, put a weight into it. Ifthe debit side is lighter, that is, if it is less than the credit side,

add on the amount which will make it even with the credit side, andwrite beside that amount, "Balance." In that case, there is a littlemoney yet unspent, and when the next two pages of the accounts arebegun this money yet unspent is put down at the head of the credit pagelike this:

Balance on hand $2.39

If, on the contrary, the credit side is less than the debit side,add the balance there. This means that something has been boughtwhich has not been paid for, and the meaning of another word relatedto debit becomes intrusive--_debt_. Debt is sometimes a temporarynecessity--like oxygen pumped into lungs which can no longer pump forthemselves; sometimes it is a calamity, sometimes it is a disgrace; andit is always dangerous.

Two pages of an account such as a girl might keep of her personalexpenses, when balanced at the end of a week, look like this:--

+--------+------------++---------++--------+---------------++---------+ | 1909 | _Cash_ || _Dr._ || 1909 | _Cash_ || _Cr._ | +--------+------------++----+----++--------+---------------++----+----+ | July 1 | Veil || | 50 || July 1 | Bal. on hand || | 25 | | " " | Soda || | 20 || " " | Allowance || 10 | 00 | | " 3 | Gloves || 2 | 00 || " 3 | Birthday || 5 | 00 |

| " 4 | Church || | 25 || | || | | | " 5 | Carfare || | 10 || | || | | | " " | Shampoo || | 75 || | || | |

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| " 6 | Postage || | 20 || | || | | | " " | Carfare || | 10 || | || | | | " 7 | Balance || 11 | 15 || | || | | | | ++----+----++--------+---------------++----+----+ | | || 15 | 25 || | || 15 | 25 | +--------+------------++----+----++--------+---------------++----+----+

The person to whom this account belongs has a balance on hand of$11.15 to put at the head of the next credit page. She is evidently anexemplary person for she has spent just about a fourth of her money ina fourth of the month.

One would think that simple household accounts might be kept like thispersonal cash-account. They could, except that it is desirable, almostnecessary, that household accounts should be divided into departments.The departments will be those which have been decided upon in the planof expenditure, such as food, clothes, fuel, savings, etc. There areseveral ways in which accounts can be kept in departments. Two or threeof the simplest are suggested here. The rule for selecting a method is,

use the one which confuses you least.

One method is, to begin in different parts of an account-book,accounts for each department like the simple cash-account above. It isconvenient to have an indexed book, or else to paste slips on the pageswhere each account begins, which will stick out beyond the leaves andindicate by a word or an initial what department will be found there.The book should be one made for accounts, for then it will be ruledcorrectly. In each place where a department begins, write the name ofthe department at the head of opposite pages. On the credit page putdown the amount allotted to this department for a week or month. Thisamount is copied from the plan of expenditure, which should be writtendown in the beginning or end of the book. On the debit page write the

names of the items for which the money is spent and the dates. It issafer to balance house-accounts once a week. This prevents the useof more than the week's allowance, or if it has been necessary touse more, this serves as a warning to spend less than the allowancethe next week. Below is a brief, two-weeks' account for the ClothesDepartment.

+-------+------------+---------++-------+-------------------+---------+ | 1909 | _Clothes_ | _Dr._ || 1909 | _Clothes_ | _Cr._ | +-------+------------+---------++-------+-------------------+----+----+ | May 1 | Hat | 8 | 00 || May 1 | Month's allowance | 25 | 00 | | " 3 | Buttons | | 20 || | | | | | " 5 | Shoes | 5 | 00 || | | | | | " 7 | Balance | 11 | 80 || | | | | | | +----+----++ | +----+----+ | | | 25 | 00 || | | 25 | 00 | +-------+------------+---------++-------+-------------------+---------+ | May 8 | Thread | | 30 || May 8 | Bal. on hand | 11 | 80 | | " 12 | Silk | 2 | 00 || | | | | | " " | Socks | 3 | 00 || | | | | | " 14 | Balance | 6 | 50 || | | | | | | +----+----++ | +----+----+ | | | 11 | 80 || | | 11 | 80 | +-------+------------+---------++-------+-------------------+---------+

If it should happen that one department has to help another department,put the amount down on the credit page as: From X--Department--$10.00;just as the birthday present is put down in the personal account.

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Here is another method, which is easy to understand, but tends tobecome clumsy if the details are many. For this, one should have a bookwith an unusually large page, and wider than it is high. Rule it likethis form below. It saves confusion if the vertical rulings are donein red ink.

Key[*] Gr. =Groceries Cl. =Clothes Car.=Carfare Ch. =Church

+--------++------++------++------++------++------++------++-------+ | 1909 ||_Fuel_||_Gr._ ||_Meat_||_Cl._ ||_Car._||_Ch._ ||_Wages_| +========++==+===++==+===++==+===++==+===++==+===++==+===++==+====+ | Aug. 1 || | || | || | || | || |20 || |35 || | | | " 2 || 6|00 || 1|00 || |98 || | || |10 || | || | |

| " 3 || | || |60 || 1|10 || 3|00 || |20 || | || | | | " 4 || | || |72 || | || | || |10 || | || | | | " 5 || |30 || | || |60 || |15 || |10 || | || | | | " 6 || | || |20 || | || 1|00 || |10 || 1|00 || | | | " 7 || | || 1|68 || 1|90 || | || |25 || | || 5|00 | +--------++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+----+ | Week's || | || | || | || | || | || | || | | | Total || 6|30 || 4|20 || 4|58 || 4|15 || 1|05 || 1|35 || 5|00 | +--------++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+---++--+----+

[* Transcriber's Note: Key added by transcriber to make table lesswide.]

At the end of the week, the amount at the foot of each of these columnsshould be compared with the weekly amount for that department allowedin the plan of expenditure. If the week's total is more than theallowance, the amount it has exceeded should be put down in red ink atthe head of the column for the next week. This will serve as a reminderthat when that column is added up, it should be possible to add in thered number without exceeding the week's allowance for that department.

This method has the disadvantage that it does not record the items forwhich the money was spent. It is practicable, however, especially fora housekeeper who only manages the part of the income devoted to thefood supply. Often, in this case, items can be obtained, if desired,from the little books of the butcher or the grocer in which purchasesare charged for a week or a month.

This method does not show the credit side of the accounts. The previousmethod has a credit side, but it is theoretical. That is, the amountson the credit pages were taken from the plan, they are not a record ofactual checks or amounts of money in which the income was received.This defect in these methods must be remedied.

It can be done by devoting a page of the account book to the dates onwhich, and the amounts in which, the actual credits come in. They willbe salary, wages, interest on investments, gifts, etc.; or the sum ofmoney from the business which supports the family, which at stated

times is deposited in a bank or given into the hands of the housekeeperfor the living expenses. It is necessary to see that these thingscome in regularly; if they do the housekeeping plan may safely remain

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unchanged. If they decrease, a way must quickly be found to lessen theexpenses; if they increase, one must decide slowly what is the wisestthing to do with the surplus.

If this way of recording actual credits does not seem convenient, ageneral account can be kept to supplement the detailed accounts. Itwill be well to have a small account book especially for this purpose.

Two of its pages will look like the example below. The items on thedebit page are gathered from detailed accounts such as have beendescribed. Completed for a month, it should be balanced as any accountis balanced.

+-------+-----------------+---------++--------+-----------------+----------+ | | | || | | | | 1909 | _General Acc._ | _Dr._ || 1909 | _General Acc._ | _Cr._ | +-------+-----------------+---------++--------+-----------------+----------+ |Jan. 1 | Savings for Jan.| 5 | 00 || Jan. 1 | Salary | 125 | 00 | |" 3 | Rent " " | 35 | 00 || " 15 | Interest on | 15 | 00 | |" 31 | Clothes " " | 20 | 00 || | (investment) | | |

|" " | Food " " | 38 | 00 || " 25 | Extra work | 10 | 00 | |" " | Fuel " " | 8 | 00 || | | | | +-------+-----------------+----+----++--------+-----------------+-----+----+

Many people keep no accounts except in their checkbooks. That is,they write down carefully therein the date and source of every checkdeposited; and on the stub of each check drawn they write the purposefor which the money is to be used. This method is much better than noaccount keeping, but it is hardly detailed enough for a house accountin which there are many items too small to be paid by check. Afterevery three or four checks there is apt to be one marked "Incidentals,"or "General Expenses." Into these indefinite checks often go thetrip the family meant to take, the table linen they meant to buy,

the savings they meant to put away, and at the end of a year it isimpossible to say what they had instead.

Unless purchases are always paid for in cash, charge-accounts willhave to have a place in the house account book. Some people havepassbooks kept by the baker and the butcher and the grocer, and paythese accounts weekly. Others have charge-accounts with all theirtradespeople and pay their bills monthly. If one has a charge-accountwith a firm, purchases made from them should invariably be charged.Paying for one purchase, and charging the next makes a tangle whichneither the purchaser nor the shopkeeper can hope to prevent.

When purchases are charged, it is well to open a little account withthe firm in the house account book. Write the name of the firm at thehead of two opposite pages. On the debit side write the purchases,their dates and prices. On the credit side, write the dates and amountsof any payments made to the firm, because on those amounts is basedthe firm's belief in their customer. Such accounts may often take theplace of the separate accounts kept for the departments of expenditure.The butcher's account will be the meat department; the coal and wooddealer's account will be the fuel department; etc.

When purchases are charged it is easier to buy more than one can payfor, than it is when they are paid for in cash. This is the cause ofthe objection which some people have to "charging."

It is very needful to have a fixed time every day for attending to thehousekeeping accounts. The best time is immediately after the orders

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for the day have been given; or immediately after the housekeeperreturns from market. It is well to have a little scratch-pad hung upin the kitchen, and another on a desk in the living room, and anotherupstairs, on which expenditures made at irregular times can be jotteddown. The used slips can be torn off each day, and the items put downin the book at the regular time for the accounts.

Accounts balanced once a week are a little trouble once a week; thosekept by the month are a large trouble once a month. Accounts balancedweekly are less apt to have mistakes in them; and they are a morefrequent warning against living beyond one's means.

To a young housekeeper wishing to look into the matter of accountkeeping, I would recommend an interesting little book by ProfessorCharles Waldo Haskins, called "How to Keep Household Accounts." It isagreeable as well as useful. I wish, also, to say, in this connection,that the methods of keeping household accounts suggested in this bookare neither professional nor authoritative; they are merely simple waysin which accounts may be correctly kept.

Not long ago, I made bold to ask an interesting and successful businessman if he kept detailed accounts. He took out of an inside pocket aworn, narrow-paged diary. In it, under each date, was recorded everycent he spent--even to cigars and organ grinders. He showed it as if hedid not quite like to, and yet as if he were determined to stand up forit--somewhat as a man acknowledges an unpopular conviction. He said,"It seems awfully close--no, I mean it seems awfully careful, but Iwant to _know_."

You may guess what it was he wanted to know.



IN MAKING and using a housework schedule the housekeeper has a narrowpath to tread, between chaos on the one hand and slavery on the other.

If the idea of a housework schedule appeals to her, it would be wisefor her to make as slight a schedule and be as little bound by it, aspossible. If, on the contrary, she feels sympathy with the woman whothought it would be more interesting to do the washing on a differentday each week, she should by all means have a rather detailed scheduleand faithfully keep to it.

A work schedule saves the time and strain which, without it, would beexpended each day in deciding what was to be done; it prevents thosewho do the work or help with it from waiting round to be told what todo; and it keeps one day from being too hard and the next too easy.But we must not have a schedule which makes the accomplishment of acertain amount of housework in a given time seem a more important dutythan the little pleasant acts which make the comfort and pleasure of ahome. If the man of the house wants his wife or daughter to walk to the

car with him after breakfast, she should be able to go without feelinganxious or preoccupied. The coming of an unexpected guest should not bethought a torment and a calamity because it disorders a schedule. When

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a small head is thrust under one's elbow and a small voice says, "'Wantto be loved now," confusion to anything which inclines us to say, "Runaway, you bother me."

A household run on a strict schedule becomes an institution, not ahome; on the other hand, a household in which the work is done at anytime or no time is neither clean, restful nor knit together with the

bonds of mutual service and mutual compliance.

Housework is some of it daily, and some of it periodical. Bedmaking isdaily; sweeping is periodical. There is also work which may be doneby the workers in the house, or by others coming from without. In onefamily the laundry work, bread making, window cleaning, floor polishingand the like will be done by those in the house; in another, thesethings will be done out of the house, or by people who come in to dothem.


The following is a list of daily work in an average house. Besidesthese things some piece of periodical work is done each day.

Fire made or made up. Shades rolled up; windows opened a few minutes; suggestions of yesterday removed. (In summer, veranda arranged.) Breakfast prepared, served and cleared away. Pantry and kitchen put in order. Menu made and orders given. Downstairs rooms put in order. Bedrooms put in order.

Bathroom put in order. Accounts. Preparations for second and third meals. Second meal served and cleared away. Rest. Third meal prepared, served and cleared away.

Outside affairs usually decide the time at which these activities areperformed. Meal hours in most cases depend on the work hours of some ofthe family, and on the meal hours depend the times when other thingsare done. Who shall do the work depends on the number of workers, theoccupations which they have beside housework, and the periodical workof the day.

If there is one woman in the house, she must go through this list ofthings, doing each slightly or elaborately, as she is able and as theyrequire. On the days when there is washing or sweeping or baking todo she will have to abbreviate other things. Upstairs and down shewill merely put things in their places and remove visible dust; shewill leave the table set until after luncheon, on washdays until afterdinner; she will have planned the meals for this day the day before,and she will hurry all the work a little.

In a house where there is a mistress and a maid, the mistress will pickout from the daily work the things she wishes to do. She will perhaps

set the table, put the house in order, plan the meals, go to market andmake her accounts before luncheon. On washing and ironing days, if noextra person comes in to help, she will add to this the chamber-work

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and perhaps the washing of the breakfast dishes. Probably on thosemornings she will not go to market.

When there are two maids in the house, the second will do the worksuggested in the former case for the mistress on a washday, with theexception of the menu and the accounts, and with the addition ofwaiting on the table, washing the dishes, and some preparations for

the meals which are not actual cooking.

When there is a third maid the upstairs part of the house will beher domain, and she will probably do some personal services for themistress. In a large family she will help to wait on the table, and towash the dinner dishes. After breakfast she will be busy with upstairswork and some sweeping, and after luncheon she will rest and dress andthen answer the doorbell and the telephone during the time that thewaitress is resting and dressing.

A fourth maid is usually a laundress, a fifth would do the rougher andsimpler part of the kitchen work, and a sixth--but there, a housekeeper

with five or six maids will not need suggestions from this book.

In households where there are several servants, their meals are addedto the list of daily work. These come before those served to the familywith sometimes the exception of dinner. When this exception is made,"tea" keeps the time between luncheon and dinner from being too long.It has always seemed to me that separate meals should be arranged foras soon as a family decide to keep a servant whose regular duty it isto wait on the table. A particularly tangible shadow lies upon a mealwhich is served by some one who after a long morning's work may befaint and hungry for the food she brings to you.


The following is a list of periodical work for an average house.

Washing. Ironing. Sorting and mending linen and clothes. Sweeping and dusting. Bread baking. Thorough cleaning of the kitchen. Cleaning garbage can, and surroundings. Cleaning refrigerator and food receptacles. Arrangements for days out. Preparations for Saturday and Sunday.

* * * * *

Polishing furniture and floors. Cleaning silver. Cleaning of linen closet and others. Care of cellar.

When can these things be done, and who is to do them?

We will consider the laundry work first. This should be the periodical

work for two days of the week; if it runs over it crowds other things,and indicates that the wash is larger than we may have it with thepresent number and quality of workers. On the days devoted to laundry

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work, the daily work should be as brief and the meals as simple aspossible. Of course, when there is a woman in the house, or who comesinto the house especially to do washing and ironing, the usual schedulecan be adhered to.

The day on which the washing is done is a matter of choice. It istraditional to wash on Monday, but some people say that Tuesday is

better. If a woman comes in to do the washing it must be done when shecan come. The advocates of washing on Monday say that as it is thelongest and heaviest weekly job, it is best got out of the way as earlyin the week as possible; that the work of the week seems to wait rounduntil the laundry work is finished; they say, too, that it is easier towash on Monday because other people are washing.

The advocates of Tuesday say that as more of the family are at homeon Sunday and as the regular clearing up is not done, the house needsespecial attention on Monday; also, that they do not like puttingclothes to soak the last thing Sunday night.

If circ*mstances leave one free to choose the day, it is as well to tryeach long enough to get used to it, and then to decide on the one whichproves easiest for every one concerned.

In the household with one maid, the mistress should help on thedays the laundry is done with the daily work and in some cases withthe laundry itself. In the two-maid household, the cook washes, thewaitress assists, and the mistress frequently does some of the dailywork. In the three-maid household it is possible for each to do herusual part of the daily work and give some assistance with the laundry.

The sorting and mending of the clean clothes is the work of themistress or of an upstairs maid. The sorting should be done when the

wash is finished. The mending, if heavy, often has to wait for oddtimes.

The next heaviest periodical work to the washing is the weeklycleaning. In a household with two maids or less, the cleaning shouldnot be the periodical work on more than two days, one for upstairs, onefor down. The living room and the dining room will probably have to bethoroughly cleaned each week, but the other rooms can usually be donein alternate weeks with the help of the daily setting in order and thecareful use of a sweeper two or three times in the interval. It is moreimmaculate and more agreeable to have all the rooms thoroughly cleanedeach week, but in a fairly large house with two women to do the workthis ideal may become a grievous burden.

In houses in which there is an ample number of servants, the cleaningof the downstairs rooms, daily and periodical, is often done beforebreakfast. It is the ideal way of accomplishing this disturbing anduncomfortable job, but it cannot be so done unless there are enoughworkers in the house to divide the work into distinct departments.

Baking, cleaning the refrigerator and food receptacles, cleaning thekitchen and looking after the garbage can is the work of the cook. Ifthere is another maid in the house, the cook has the four days of theweek not used for the laundry work when she may do these things. Ifshe is the maid-of-all-work, she will have the two days left from the

laundry and sweeping in which to do them and many others.

Bread baking is usually done twice or three times a week. Cake baking,

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nowadays, is an irregular performance. As making bread is not a day'swork, it can be combined with other pieces of work, preferably withthose which are done in the kitchen. It combines nicely with cleaningthe refrigerator and food receptacles because one of these is for breadand should be perfectly fresh for the new batch. A careful housewifesometimes makes the cleaning of the refrigerator her own work, but evenso, she will appoint a time for doing it. A good refrigerator need

be cleaned only once or twice a week, a poor one may have to be doneoftener.

A garbage can should be cleaned as often as it is emptied, and shouldwith its surroundings be watched all the time, lest the cover is leftoff or any scraps or splashes are left outside to draw flies and makedisagreeable odours.

A kitchen in which much work is done needs a thorough weekly cleaning.People are apt to do this on Saturday, but there will be manyhouseholds in which it will be unwise to do so. If the master of thehouse has a half holiday on Saturday, and the mistress of the house

does the housework, the work of Saturday morning must be only the dailywork and such preparations as will leave Saturday afternoon and Sundayas free from work as possible. Some extra cooking, marketing and menumaking, some adornment of the house and laying out of fresh table linenwill be desirable and necessary; but kitchen cleaning, the changing ofbed linen, or the making up of weekly accounts, should be appointed forsome other day in the week.

If the housewife has servants to help her, she can have more work doneon Saturday, but even then, she will guard against having things donewhich make the house seem unrestful, or which occupy her.

Arrangements for "days out" are merely adjustments by which one

person's work is done by others. If there is one maid, the mistresstakes her place; if two, one does the necessary work of both, themistress helping a little. For the day a maid goes out no periodicalwork belonging to her department must be appointed. "Sundays out," likethe days, are merely an adjustment of duties to allow for fewer workers.

Some of the periodical work is much more occasional than that alreadymentioned. This must be fitted in, sometimes by leaving more frequentwork undone for one day, but usually by appointing it for a day whenthere happens to be a little less to do than usual. The silver, forinstance, usually need not be done more than once a fortnight or once amonth, and can be fitted into a morning when there is no sweeping, orinto a rainy Monday. Other infrequent work can be managed in the sameway.

In simple households a detailed written schedule is not necessaryperhaps nor desirable, unless it be for periodical work and the "daysout." For these a schedule like the one herewith might be made. Thisone is for two maids and includes some infrequent work.

+--------+--------+--------+----------+--------+----------+---------+--------+ | | _Mond._| _Tues._| _Wed._ |_Thurs._| _Fri._ | _Sat._ | _Sun._ | |--------+--------+--------+----------+--------+----------+---------+--------| |COOK | Washing| Ironing| Bake | Day | Put | Bake | Sunday | | | | | Clean | out | cellar | Clean | out |

| | | |refrig., | | in | kitchen | | | | | |etc. Take | | order | | | | | | |waitress's| | | | |

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| | | | work | | | | | |--------+--------+--------+----------+--------+----------+---------+--------| |WAITRESS| Washing| Ironing| Day out | Sweep | Sweep | Clean | Take | | | | | |upstairs|downstairs| silver | cook's | | | | | | | | | work | |--------+--------+--------+----------+--------+----------+---------+--------| |MISTRESS| Help | Help |Sort and | Help | Help | Get out | Help |

| | a | a |mend wash | with | a | clean | with | | | little | little |Help with | work | little | linen | work | | | | | work | | | and set | | | | | | | | | closet | | | | | | | | | in order| | +--------+--------+--------+----------+--------+----------+---------+--------+

[*Transcriber's Note: Days of the week were abbreviated by thetranscriber to make the table more narrow.]


One or two general remarks about schedules are necessary before thesubject can be closed.

As far as possible heavy, dirty work should be done in the morning, theworkers are more able to do it then, and besides, the cook does notwish to do such things when getting the dinner, nor the waitress whenshe should be dressed for the afternoon, nor the mistress at the socialtime of the day.

In making a work schedule, a savings fund is as necessary as in makinga plan of expenditure. If every one in the house is doing as much as ispossible, there is no allowance for accident, or illness, or unexpected

demands. A little strength which is not nerves should be left in youand in your handmaidens at the end of the day. Housework extends overan exceedingly long day. At present, the only way to remedy this seemsto be to arrange that each worker get a little rest some time in theday. I have put this as a necessary item in the table of daily work.

If no savings fund of strength is possible, more workers are needed, orbetter workers; or, if this is impossible, the style of living shouldbe modified until it is appropriate to the force of workers.

The schedule is not the important thing, but the work; and there arethings more important even than the work. For instance, a reasonabledegree of liberty for the whole household.

The family, unless they take part in the work, should not be consciousof the work schedule. It is a framework to be carefully draped; a newkind of family skeleton to be kept in the closet as carefully as theold kind. It is necessary because it makes easy, natural regularitypossible, and without it, as we have said, there is neither character,nor peace, nor mutual service in a home.

The housework must be done--well and regularly done--and to accomplishthis, days must be alike, and weeks must be alike, and months andyears alike. But they must be as the leaves on a tree are--alike tothe casual glance, yet really somewhat different because capable of

infinite adaptability.

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THE time and strength necessary for housework, and the comfort andhappiness resulting from the work depend much upon something whichhousekeepers have to a great extent the power to control. I mean thequantity and kind of things they have in their houses.

Much time and money and weary labour would be saved, much comfort andloveliness would be gained if we could persuade ourselves to followWilliam Morris's rule:

"Have nothing in your rooms which you do not think to be beautiful andknow to be useful."

Were this rule suddenly put in practice, what a bundling out ofrubbish would ensue. A Bonfire of Vanities would rise in no time,built of little tables and pedestals, cushions and bows, curtains,vases, pictures that no future generations would call us vandals fordestroying, fringes and ruffles, souvenirs of travel, broken andmended objects from the top shelves of closets, bronze and chinastatuettes, and that whole miserable race of blotters which do notblot, book-racks which faint under the weight of books, pen-wiperswhich would be insulted if they were inked, collapsible waste-basketsalways in a state of collapse, holders that hold nothing, cases thatfit nothing, impervious pin cushions!

May the smoke of them ascend!

One would think that this rule of use and beauty were austere enough,yet many people, before they acquire even a useful or a beautifulobject, must consider whether there is room for it in their home,whether the members of the household have time and strength to takecare of it, and whether it is appropriate to their possessions and totheir way of living.

The amount of space we have about us seriously effects our healthof body and mind. The more furniture there is in a room, the lessair space there is. The sense of oppression one feels in a roomcrowded with furniture is not imagination, there is literally muchless air to breathe. It is also not merely an idea that a house fullof ornaments and pictures is not restful to live in. One knows whatmatchless weariness results from hours spent in a museum; it is causedby continually readjusting one's eyes, and thoughts, and emotions toan endless succession of things. A room crowded with ornaments andpictures is a miniature museum. With familiarity one may cease to seethe individual objects the room contains, but this is indifference, notpeace.

Those who have not done housework with their own brains and bodiescannot realize how many thousands of times every object in a house hasto be touched and moved merely for the sake of cleanliness and order.It seems a small matter whether there are six pictures in a room or

eight, whether flower vases are kept in the china closet or on the topsof book shelves and tables, whether there are five little fal-lalson a mantelshelf or twenty-five; but I hardly think it is a small

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matter whether a woman spend a half-hour with her children, or out ofdoors, or reading a book, or spends it in dusting tormenting trifles.These considerations are equally important when the work is done bymaids; there are always enough useful things to do in a house to fillreasonable work hours.

One must ask, then, even when a useful or beautiful object is in

question, Have I room for it? and, Is it worth the time and strengthneeded to care for it? And then one more question: Is this thing Idesire suitable? That is, will it make the rest of the furniture whichcannot now be renewed look shabby? Shall I feel that it is too good forthe sun to shine upon, or the family to use? Will it set up a standardwhich I cannot keep up to without feverish effort?

In order to select or to weed out possessions in a reasonable way,attachments have to be kept in check; one must keep in mind that thefamily are more worthy of regard than the family chairs, and one musthave such respect for oneself as a spiritual and intellectual creaturethat one will not fall in love with a silver-service or a set of

ancient plates. I can think of few things more humiliating than thefact that families can be divided by old furniture; that sisters canbe estranged by silver sugar-tongs; that lives can be spoiled, heartsbroken and fortunes spent in the service of possessions which shouldexist only for the temporary comfort and happiness of their owners.

All this does not mean that our homes should be bare as hospitals, andugly as barracks, and that, if the furniture is shabby, we ought notto have the one beautiful picture, or the good piano, or the hoard ofbooks, which may be the treasure of the family. Nor does it mean thatwe ought not to love our household goods.

We want our homes as complete in comforts and appliances as we can

reasonably afford. We want them lovely to look at. And we shall beall the better if we have an affection for every stick they contain.Scrooge hugged his own bed-curtains, because the sight of them assuredhim that he was at home. For the same reason we love the things welive with, and the place where we live. We like to come back after anabsence and find the same things in the same places, and get an extrawelcome from every one of them.

This is incidentally an argument against frequently changing thearrangement of the furniture, as some housewives think it economicaland diverting to do. Such changes destroy that settled, establishedlook which is homelike, and very comfortable to live with. Do you knowabout the man who was not afraid of burglars when he got up at night,but was awfully afraid of bureaus and rocking-chairs which his wifefound a new place for every week?

We naturally become attached to things which we like, and which we havetaken thought to get, and which we have looked after year after year.Heirlooms are the result of such care and affection and companionshipcontinuing year after year, generation after generation until theobjects on which this care has been expended seem to become a part ofourselves and our lives, until they seem to have absorbed some of thepersonality and affection of those who no longer dwell with them, norwith us.

But when possessions begin to seem something more than tables andtea-cups and silver spoons, have a care--they're not.

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EVERY house contains a great variety of objects and substances. Ifthese are to be kept clean and in good condition, one must know whatthey are and what to do for them.

_The Ceiling._--In the first place each room has a ceiling. Ceilingsare usually plain and light coloured, because they are not easy to lookat and because they are reflectors. They are not ornamented on accountof our necks; they are not made dark coloured on account of the lightbills.

Ceilings for the most part need little care. When the room is cleaned,

they should be wiped, either with a long-handled mop with a woolhead--dry--or with a broom in a bag. The former is harder to get butis better, because the combined length of the ordinary broom and theordinary woman is not usually enough to reach the ceiling effectuallyand without strain. Besides, many brooms are too heavy to use aboveone's head. Such wiping nicely done is all the regular care a ceilingneeds, whether it is whitewashed or frescoed.

_The Walls._--Walls are panelled, or painted, or calcimined, or coveredwith fabric or paper. Wood, paint and calcimine are considered cleanerthan other coverings, but all can be kept up to an ordinary standard ofcleanliness.

Panelling should be carefully wiped with the wool-headed mop used forthe ceiling, or with a cloth where it is within reach. If the wood isdark and polished, it may now and again be rubbed with a little goodfurniture polish; if it is light or unpolished it is better to contentoneself with wiping off the dust.

Fabric-covered walls should be cleaned once or twice a year with avacuum cleaner. If this is not possible, they may be as often brushed.This must not be done violently, but carefully, and preferably with ahair broom--a white hair broom such as one uses for clothes, if thewall covering is especially handsome or delicate in colour.

Painted walls may be wiped with a dry or dampened mop, or they may bewashed with soap and water, or even with disinfectant, should thishappen to be desirable.

Calcimined walls may be wiped only with a soft mop, or very gentlywith a broom in a bag. Mop or broom bag must often be shaken out ofthe window, otherwise the walls will be smirched or clouded. Verylittle in the way of restoration or cleaning should be attempted withcalcimine, for it almost invariably makes a bad matter worse. Spotssuch as are made by hands or heads can sometimes be removed by rubbingthem with a piece of dry bread, or with some corn meal. It is safe toexperiment with any _dry_ remedy; but a wet remedy will always fail.Even calcimine itself, put over a spot or a scar, will leave a mark.

Papered walls may be wiped with a dry mop, or a broom in a bag. Theyare not as easily smirched as calcimine, but one must frequently shake

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out of doors, or else change any brush or cloth used for wiping walls.

If you need a reason for wiping walls and ceilings, look at the mop orthe cover of the broom with which you have done the work. Dirt is theenemy of health and loveliness.

_Woodwork._--When woodwork is cleaned, all cracks, ornaments and

irregularities should first be gone over with a small, soft brush. Aflat brush such as is used for varnishing is good.

If the woodwork is not polished, it should next be carefully--thatis, every inch of it--wiped and rubbed with a soft, dry cloth, or ifthe room is exceedingly dusty, with a cloth very slightly dampened.Any sort of oil, or polish, or even water is apt to darken or spotunpolished wood. In the case of baseboards and window ledges, however,a little dressing of some kind should occasionally be rubbed into them,for they have to be defended from dampness in the one case, and hardusage in the second. A little of the polish used for floors will dovery well for this purpose.

If woodwork is polished, the dust should be wiped off after thecracks have been cleaned with the little brush. It should then berubbed briskly with a flannel or soft cotton cloth dampened with goodfurniture polish. Kerosene, which is usually at hand, is inexpensiveand excellent for this and other purposes of the kind. But use this orpolish sparingly.

Painted woodwork should ordinarily be dusted with a little brush andthen wiped just as if it were hard wood. Once in a while, it shouldbe wiped with slightly warm suds made with mild soap. It should notbe soaped nor made very wet, and should be wiped dry as soon as it iswashed. Spots which will not yield to this cleaning can be removed with

alcohol or kerosene.

_Floors._--Some people will tell you that uncarpeted floors are a greatdeal of trouble, and some will say that they are very little. Perhapspart of the trouble which they seem to give is due to the fact thatpeople keep their floors cleaner than their carpets. Dust _shows_, aswe say, on a bare floor; it lies under furniture and blows about influffs. If the floor is carpeted, that very same dust, also the dust ofother days when no sweeping is done, sinks into the carpet and assistsin making colds and throat disorders and a stuffy smell. If we reallyminded dust, we would mind it just as much buried in the carpet asrolling round in fluffs. But we don't mind dust, we mind being thoughtdusty. If we have the same standard of cleanliness for the carpet asfor the floor, the floor is the easier to care for.

Uncarpeted floors are usually finished with oil, shellac, stain, wax orsome other smooth, preservative substance. Floors thus finished requirethree kinds of care; refinishing, polishing and dusting.

_Dusting._--Dusting should be done, if possible, every day. It does notrequire much time or strength. With a good mop or a broom in a bag,floors can be as quickly and lightly dusted as polished desks or tables.

_Polishing._--The frequency with which floors require polishingdepends on the finish, the amount of wear, and the standard of

appearance required. Some people polish them once a week, some once afortnight, some once a month; others have their floors refinished twicea year and do nothing to them in the intervals except dust them.

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Waxed floors are polished differently from those finished with oil orshellac.

To polish a waxed floor, first remove all dust with a hair broom, awool mop, or a broom in a bag. Then rub carefully and energeticallyevery inch of the floor with a heavy polisher until the polish is

restored. The best polishers are costly, but others, less expensive,are made of strips of felt or chamois. They can also be home-made froma block of heavy wood with a hole bored diagonally in the top largeenough to hold an old broom handle or a mop-stick. The bottom of theblock must have several thicknesses of heavy material tacked over it.Old flannel, old bath towels, and old carpet are good for this purpose.

Floors not finished with wax are polished with oil or some patentpolish. Many patent mixtures for this purpose are exceedingly good.Besides these, two parts linseed oil to one part kerosene is a goodpolish; also one-half turpentine to one-half crude oil. Keroseneused by itself both cleans and polishes floors, but its odour is an

objection to its use.

As in the cases of the waxed floor, all dust must be removed before thepolishing begins. When this is accomplished, rub the floor with a softthick cloth dampened with polish. There should always be much rubbingand little oil. A quart of floor polish should last months. If bymistake too much oil is applied, rub the floor again with a dry cloth.When finished, it should feel smooth to the hand, not oily.

If oily cloths are kept from one time to another, they should not beshut up closely in a box or closet for they are liable to spontaneouscombustion.

_Refinishing._--Floors are refinished by receiving a new coat offinish. Before this is put on, the floors should be thoroughly cleaned.This cleaning is well done with sandpaper and turpentine. Every boardmust be rubbed in the direction of the grain until it is entirelysmooth and clean. After this the floor should be wiped with a drycloth, and the finish applied and polished.

When it is necessary or desirable to wash a hardwood floor, it shouldbe done just before refinishing and with tepid water, soap that wouldnot hurt hands nor lace and a cloth well wrung out before it isapplied to the floor. Water is injurious to polished floors of anykind, and to waxed floors especially.

If a floor receives hard wear in one or two places, or if somethinghurtful is spilled upon it, it may be necessary to refinish theseplaces when the remainder of the floor does not need it. In such casesa few square feet can be done just as a whole floor is done. The finalpolishing will keep the place from looking like a patch.

_Rugs and Carpets._--Carpets tacked down close to the walls are notas clean as loose floor covering, and they are the chief cause of thefearful misery called house cleaning. Every other act necessary tothe cleanliness of a house can be done without turning it upside downand driving the family to the club or the tavern except--taking upcarpets. Rugs can be gathered up and taken to the lawn or the roof to

be cleaned. The walls and floor of a room can be wiped within an hour.Windows can be washed and furniture and brasses polished with peoplesitting undisturbed in the room where it is being done.

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Before the possibility of unobtrusive cleaning had dawned on me, Iwas once making a visit in a large city house. My surprise was almostpainful when I saw a man cleaning the windows in the drawing room onlyan hour before an afternoon reception. It did not mean that they hadbeen forgotten, or that the house was carelessly run--far from it--itwas merely the day for window cleaning and the man whose business

it was to do it went from room to room and cleaned them, making nodisturbance and leaving no trace.

I make my protest against carpets for the reason that it is impossibleto clean them in an unobtrusive way, and because they are the inspiringevil genius of cleaning done with _emphasis_--done, not for the sake ofhealth and happiness, but for the sake of appearing to be a particularhousekeeper.

Nonetheless, if we have carpets they must be cared for. Before thesweeping is begun, something should be scattered over the carpet tokeep the dust down. Some of the things used for this purpose are damp

tea leaves, sawdust, bran, corn meal, and shreds of newspaper. Thereare also patent substances for the purpose. One must be careful thatthese things mentioned are _damp_, not wet. Tea leaves should be wrungout hard before they are scattered, and never used on any delicatelycoloured carpet. Newspaper also is not safe for very delicate colours.

Any of these substances may be used in sweeping a tiled or paintedfloor; and any for an unpainted wooden floor except tea leaves.

When preparing to sweep, make the room as light as possible. Sweep thecracks along the walls and the edges of the carpet first, then sweepas much of the room as possible in the same direction, that directionbeing with the nap of the carpet, not against it. Sweep with short,

light strokes--it is sweeping, not digging. When the dust is gatheredinto as small a pile as possible, take it up in a dustpan.

After sweeping it is good to wipe the carpet with a cloth wrung outof warm, soapy water in which is a little ammonia. Turpentine is evenbetter than ammonia for carpets, but not for hands. Do not wet thecarpet, wipe it lightly and quickly, rinsing the cloth often, butwringing it out hard.

One can to some extent combine this wiping process with sweeping bydipping one's broom now and then in water in which there is a littlesalt, ammonia or turpentine. Shake the broom lightly before applying itto the carpet, or the first stroke will leave a wet spot. Salt, ammoniaand turpentine brighten the colours of a carpet, and the latter two areobjectionable to moths. It is better not to dampen carpets in any wayon rainy or humid days.

Rugs, when they cannot be carried out of the room, may be sweptaccording to the directions for carpets and then rolled up, or foldedround some piece of furniture difficult to move, until the floor hasbeen cared for. The pleasantest and best way to clean rugs, however, isto take them out of doors and beat them on the grass or on a clothesline. Beat them with a furniture beater, or light cane, or stick, firston one side then on the other, then lay flat and brush the surface witha broom. Beating is better than shaking, both for the rug and for the

shaker. When they are shaken, however, it is advisable to hold them bythe side instead of the end; they are then less likely to tear or ravel.

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Matting should be swept with especial care for cracks and edges, andcrosswise of the breadths as far as possible. It should be wipedoccasionally with salt and water, which cleans it and keeps it frombecoming brittle. Many people prefer to use a hair broom for sweepingmatting.

_Shades and Curtains._--All the cleaning that shades need can be given

them by drawing them down to their full length and dusting them firston one side then on the other with a short-handled mop, or a dusterif you can reach the roller with it. The side next the window is themore dusty as it is the outside of the roll. When the shades havebeen dusted they should be rolled to the top of the window until thecleaning of the room is finished.

If they do not roll up tightly and at once, take the shade from thesocket, roll it up evenly, then hold the flat piece of metal whichprojects from one end of the roller between your thumb and fingers andturn the roller round and round with the other hand until it is veryhard to turn. See that the little ratchet has fitted into the notch

for it in the piece you are holding, to prevent it from flying backwhen you let go. Then the shade is ready to be replaced in the sockets.Shades which fly up unexpectedly are wound up too tight.

Curtains should be shaken and brushed, with a whisk if they are ofheavy material, with a softer brush if they are delicate. They shouldthen be put in bags made for the purpose, or folded over the rod andcovered with a dusting sheet until the room is clean.

_Furniture._--Upholstered furniture should if possible be put out ona veranda where it can be aired and brushed. If this is not possibleit should be beaten or brushed when we are preparing the room forcleaning. All creases and tufting should be carefully explored with

a whisk and the furniture afterward covered with a cloth until theother cleaning is finished. Furniture upholstered in leather shouldbe wiped, not brushed, and occasionally rubbed with vinegar, and sweetoil--proportions, one tablespoonful vinegar to three of oil. In timethis slightly darkens the colour of the leather, but it keeps it fromcracking.

On regular cleaning days polished furniture should have its carvingsand cracks brushed out with the paint brush used for the woodwork ofthe room, and should then be rubbed with a very soft cloth. About oncea month--oftener if the wear is hard, less often if it is easy--itshould be rubbed with a good polish. The old furniture in France hasusually been rubbed for generations with sweet oil and vinegar, in theproportions given above for leather furniture; probably few things arebetter. Two of the polishes suggested for floors, are equally good forfurniture:

½ turpentine to ½ crude oil.

1 part kerosene to 2 parts linseed oil.

Also, equal parts turpentine, linseed oil and vinegar.

I believe that the best care an amateur can give to a very highlypolished piece of furniture like a piano, is to wash it, when it

becomes clouded, with luke-warm soapsuds. The soap should be mild,good soap. Wash a bit of the furniture at a time and dry it carefully,using very soft cloths; when it has all been dried, polish it with

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chamois and as much energy as you can conscientiously spare.

If painted furniture looks dingy, rub it with a little kerosene.Kerosene will usually remove spots from painted furniture--finger-marksfrom white enamelled beds, for instance.

_Windows._--The woodwork of windows should be brushed and wiped free

from dust before the washing of the glass begins. It is better not touse soap for washing windows or glass of any kind; it sometimes cloudsit, sometimes gives it a blue tinge. Put ammonia or borax in the waterused, or else rub the glass with whiting, or a scouring soap which isnot gritty. If one of these, or whiting, is used, it should be allowedto dry and should then be rubbed off with a dry cloth or a newspaperuntil the glass shines. Newspaper is as good as anything you can getfor polishing windows. There is nothing especial to say about cleaningwindows with water except wash the panes clean and dry them dry, one ata time, beginning with those nearest the top of the sash. Do not try towash all the windows in a house with a pint of water and a wristband,but the opposite extreme is as bad--worse for your dwelling. Any

method of cleaning windows by dashing quantities of water on the panes,breaks the putty, loosens the glass, spoils the paint on the woodworkand soaks the wood itself with water.

Mirrors should not be wet. Fly-specks and finger-marks can be removedwith a damp cloth or alcohol, and the mirror polished with whiting andchamois.

Pictures, also, should not be wet. The frames and backs may be brushedand wiped, and the glass cleaned with a damp cloth or with a littlealcohol.

_Brass._--Brasses, such as andirons, lamps, jardinières, candlesticks,

sconces and the like must be divided into two classes for cleaning.Those things which are lacquered must only be washed and then polishedwith flannel or chamois. Any sort of cleaning other than this willsoon remove the lacquer entirely. Unlacquered brass may be polished asenergetically and severely as any substance in the house.

Wood ashes are a good brass polish, especially pine ashes.

The bath-brick with which people clean knives will also clean brass.

An old coloured woman, who lived with me once, polished the andironswith salt and vinegar.

These things are not as quick or as easy to use as many patent brasscleaners which one can buy nowadays. It is just as well, however, toknow what one could do if separated from modern conveniences.

_Tiles._--Glazed tiles may be wiped with a cloth wrung out of warmsoapsuds, but water should not be put directly upon them. It tends tosoften the cement in which they are laid. Unglazed tiles are restoredto colour and cleanliness by a rubbing with linseed oil.

_Lamps._--Lamps used every night need care every day. They should bekept full of oil for two reasons. One is, that if we then happen to usethem for an unusually long time they will not burn out; the other, is,

that if a lamp is full of oil no space is left for vapours rising fromthe oil, which otherwise may become compressed in the bowl and ignitewhen a match is applied to the wick. If there is a little screw-topped

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opening in the lamp where it can be filled without unscrewing theburner, use that opening for filling it. The burner should not beunscrewed unless it must be. Great care should be taken not to filllamps too full; the level of the oil should be just below the lowerside of the little opening, otherwise the oil will ooze out on the lampand catch dust and give off a disagreeable odour.

It is better to _rub_ off the hard burned crust of a wick than to cutit off. This leaves the wick more even and wastes it less. When ithas been rubbed smooth and soft, see that it turns up and down easilyand, if a round wick, that it is even. A flat wick should be slightlyrounded, the middle being the highest point, like this diacritic Æ,not this ̑one. To be perfectly sure, light the lamp for a moment,put on the chimney, and if the flame is not the right shape alter thewick. When this is finished, wipe the burner inside and out, above andbelow, as carefully as possible. An old water-colour brush is good forcleaning intricate burners.

The time when a lamp needs a new wick is a good time to boil the

burner. Remove the old wick and put the burner into some receptacle notused for food, with water and washing-soda: one teaspoonful soda to onequart water. Then boil it well. This is a good thing to do whenever alamp smells or gives a poor light. If a new wick and a boiled burnerdo not help the matter, either the oil is poor or a new burner isnecessary.

If a new lampwick is a little too wide for a burner, draw out two orthree strands at one side. A wick should fill the opening for it,however, quite closely, especially if it has not yet been wet.

One should have a special place for cleaning lamps, and for keepingthe oil and everything else used in their care. Nothing used for lamp

cleaning or for applying kerosene should be used for any other purpose.Newspaper is good for cleaning lamps because when the work is finishedit can be burned. It can be used to protect the table on which thecleaning is done, wicks can be rubbed and lamps wiped with it, andnothing cleans chimneys so well. Chimneys polished with newspapersrarely have to be washed. Washing is not good for them, it clouds themand makes them break more easily.

The catches which hold the chimney must not press very tightly, forthis breaks the expanding glass; they must, though, be tight enough tokeep the chimney from falling if the lamp is moved.

When a lamp is put in its place ready for lighting, the wick should bejust visible above the socket in which it moves. It should be lightedwhile still at this level, then turned higher when the chimney has hadtime to heat. When the light is to be put out, turn the wick down untilit disappears into the socket. This keeps the wick from smoking andthereby smelling. Turning a wick down, however, does not always putout the flame; be sure that it is out before leaving the lamp for thenight.

_Plants._--It seems not unreasonable to say that plants should notoccupy the most agreeable windows of the living room, nor prevent theproper airing of the house in winter. This does not happen as often asit used to, but it does occasionally even now. In very few houses is

there room for more than three or four plants, if it is remembered thatthe family have the first right to the light, and air, and window space.

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There is also the consideration that few plants can receive better carethan many. House plants ought to be immaculate. They should be in neatpots standing in saucers or jardinières, and should have all witheredor unsightly leaves removed and the other leaves kept free from dust.If this is not done, they become that greatest eyesore, a degeneratedornament.

They should be put in a bathtub or sink when the rooms are cleaned, andsprayed and sponged and soaked. This helps to offset their unnaturallife in warm, dry rooms. Plants thrive on attention. They love to bestirred, and watered, and sponged, and petted, and made much of. If wehave only a few, we can treat them in this way, to their pleasure andour own.

_The Process._--We have spoken of the substances which more usuallyrequire the care of the housekeeper outside the kitchen and pantry,and of ways in which they can be cared for. It will be well now todescribe the order in which cleaning is done, and to say a word aboutthe appliances used.

The first thing when cleaning is to be done is to gather the appliancesneeded for the work. If possible one should have a broom closet inwhich all the objects used in cleaning can be kept, then no time iswasted in hunting them up. Two rows of hooks, one high and one low, insome secluded spot will do instead of a closet.

I do not say that one cannot clean a room with merely a broom and aduster. One can sweep everything with the broom, dust everything withthe duster, and take the dust up on a newspaper. Good appliances,however, make work more thorough, more easy, and more interesting.Those which I suggest here are merely such as I know to be useful. Asa woman learns her work and becomes more and more interested in it she

will choose and invent appliances for herself.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

The Broom Closet]

The following are the things I like to have to clean with:

A short step-ladder, not heavy. A wool mop head with two handles, one long, one short. A hair broom. A mop handle with two heavy floor cloths. A broom of medium weight, with a slim handle. A furniture beater. A long-handled dust pan. A flat paint brush. A whisk. A piece of chamois skin. Two cheese-cloth dusters, one damp, one dry. Two flannel dusters. Several dusting sheets.

Dusters and dusting sheets can be made of very inexpensive or oldmaterial, and they are things in which it is well not to stint oneself.

Wool-headed mops are usually called, in shops, piano dusters, butwhy should pianos have a monopoly of anything so comfortable andconvenient? They are rather expensive but they last a long time, and

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can be washed perfectly clean. One can get along with one head and twohandles, if necessary, by dusting the high things first, using the longhandle, then the lower things and the floor, using the short handle.After this the head must be washed, for the floors will make it toodirty to use for walls. Wool gathers and holds dust more than any othersubstance I know.

Other appliances which are used for wiping walls and floors are stringmops, broom bags, and heavy cloths attached to a mop handle. Stringmops scatter lint and it is impossible to wash them entirely clean.Broom bags are good because they can be washed easily, and because theymake a broom into a combination appliance useful either for sweepingor wiping. They are said to be better made with a ruffle. Mop handleswith attachments to hold the cloths are easily obtainable and muchbetter for all purposes than string mops. In choosing one, see thatthe attachment is neither heavy nor intricate. Cloths can be easilyattached to a mop stick if a deep groove is cut in the stick two orthree inches from the end. Hold the stick with the grooved end up. Layover it two or three heavy cloths--in the way one would put an unfolded

handkerchief over the end of one's finger. Draw them down and tie astring tightly round them in the groove. Then reverse the handle andthe mop is ready for use. Patent handles are better than this homelycontrivance in all but one respect: in using them one must guardagainst striking furniture or baseboards with the metal piece whichholds the cloth.

Here are a few important principles of cleaning.

1. Prepare the place which is to be cleaned.

2. Begin at the top. A house is cleaned from garret to cellar, a roomfrom ceiling to floor, a staircase from top to bottom.

3. Do not flap round with a cloth or a feather duster. The object ofcleaning is to remove dust, getting as little into the air as possible.

4. All necessary shaking and brushing must be done before the floor iscleaned; afterward, only _wiping_ should be done.

We will now go over the process of cleaning a room as if we wereprompting ourselves for the actual work.

Remove the plants to the sink.

Remove and carefully dust the ornaments, putting them on a tray whichcan be carried into an adjoining room, or put them on a stationarypiece of furniture, which has been dusted to receive them, and coverwith a dusting sheet.

Shut the doors into adjoining rooms.

Open the windows.

Dust the shades and roll to the top of the windows.

Shake, brush and cover the curtains.

Remove the upholstered furniture and rugs if possible.

If not, brush the furniture and cover it, sweep and roll the rugs.

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If there is a fireplace in the room remove the ashes and lay the fire.

Wipe the ceiling, walls, woodwork, light fixtures and pictures.

Wipe the floor, not forgetting the baseboards, or sweep the carpet.

Whatever is done to the floor is the climax of the cleaning. After thatwe restore the room to order. This is the period when everything shouldbe done by wiping.

Clean rugs and furniture which have been put outdoors.

Wipe furniture, mirrors, picture-glasses, windows and tiles.

Restore the rugs, furniture and ornaments to their places.

Bits of special cleaning like polishing brasses, washing windows,caring for lamps, and the like are best done at some other time than

that appointed for cleaning the room. If these jobs are included, theymake the regular cleaning too heavy and too long.

This process has been written out as if the work were to be done by oneperson, which frequently is not the case. It is the logical order ofthe work, however, whatever the number of workers. The outline of theprocess is this:

First all brushing and dusting--everything which gets dust off otherthings on to the floor.

Then the cleaning of the floor.

Then wiping away all dust made by the cleaning and restoring order.

One cannot effectually do this or any housework with one's mind onsomething else. The processes are intricate and logical and requirethoughtful organization beforehand, and intense attention at themoment. If we can think about our neighbours, or brood over ourgrievances while we are cleaning, we can be quite sure that we have notdone the work as well nor as quickly as we could.



"UPSTAIRS work" is, I believe a colloquialism for making beds, tidyingbedrooms, and caring for washstands and bathrooms.

_The Sequence._--A reasonable order for this work is the following:

Shut the door of the room unless the weather is warm.

Roll the shades to the top of the windows.

Open the windows top and bottom.

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Open the closet doors.

Take the bedclothes from the bed and spread them across two chairs setfar enough apart to keep the clothes from lying on the floor. Spreadthe lower sheet in a place by itself and remember which it is. Turn themattress over the foot of the bed, or turn it up on edge.

Do these things in all the rooms which are to be cared for, carefullyshutting the doors of each.

If there are washstands in the rooms, now remove the waste water andput the stands in order.

If there are not, make the beds, beginning with the one first opened.

Dust and put the rooms in order.

Put the bathroom in order.

If the bedrooms are on more than one floor, it is well to do a floor ata time, and the bathrooms after all the rooms are finished.

The upstairs work is then finished until the beds are opened and therooms put in order for the night.

_The Description._--The first five actions in this order of work aredone for the sake of letting as much light and air as possible into therooms and the beds.

The washstands are put in order next because this gives the beds alonger time to air, and because it is desirable to get the waste waterout of the rooms as soon as possible.

_Washstands._--For this work one needs a pail for waste water and anewspaper or some such thing for it to stand on; two cloths; a stiffbrush; and some sort of soap or powder which has been found goodfor cleansing toilet china. Borax, ammonia and yellow soap are oldstandbys for this purpose. Where there is not running water, one mustadd to these a pail of water for rinsing. Many people think that thewater for this purpose must be hot, but I have found that hot watertends to roughen and crack the glaze of toilet china, and to inclinethe articles used for waste water to give off an odour. When water isleft in the pitchers it is well to use it for rinsing as this lessensthe amount of water to be carried, and insures that the water in thepitchers is fresh each day.

Empty all the waste water into the pail brought for it. Pour a littleclean water into each thing emptied. Do not use all the clean waterfor this first rinsing. With one of the cloths wipe the objects onthe washstand which have not been wet; rinse, and with this samecloth dry the tooth mug, soap dish, pitchers and bowl. If one of thepitchers contains water you need, attend to it after the other chinais finished. Wash the slop jar and chamber with the cleaning substanceor soap and the stiff brush. Rinse them with the remaining clean waterand dry them with the _other_ cloth. Never use for these articles thecloth which in the next room will be needed for the cleaner china. Tohave the two cloths of different materials helps the worker to remember

this. Fill the pitchers with fresh water, carry away soiled towels,neatly spread or fold once used ones which are to be retained, andleave everything in its place.

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The daily care of a stationary basin consists merely in washing ordusting the objects on the edge of the basin or on shelves over it,washing and drying the basin and the frame which holds it, and wipingdust from the pipes and fixtures underneath.

Whether the care of washstands is difficult or easy depends on the

water used, and on whether the work is done nicely every day. Inspite of daily care, very hard water will encrust the china. Theseencrustations can usually be removed after they have been soaked withvinegar for a few hours.

_Bed Making._--Making a bed is an art worth knowing, it gives suchcomfort.

If the spring or other parts of the bedstead need dusting, that shouldbe done first, then the mattress replaced. This should be turned eachday, sometimes from end to end, sometimes from side to side, and givenas many thumps and punches as are needed to make it level and even with

the springs.

If a pad or cover of any kind is needed over the mattress, that is puton first and spread very smoothly, or, if wide enough, it is drawn verytightly and tucked under the mattress.

Then put on the under sheet, right side up, with the hems at the topand bottom, the selvages at the sides and the middle crease in themiddle of the bed. Turn the sheet smoothly under the mattress at thehead and foot. In the case of the under sheet, this turn should be afew inches deeper at the head than at the foot; in the upper sheet thedeeper turn should be made at the foot. The person who sleeps in thebed naturally pushes the under sheet down, and pulls the upper sheet up.

To fold the corners, stand at the foot or head of the bed. Keeping thefold even, hold the sheet straight out from the side of the bed. Putyour other hand under the corner of the mattress and run it round onthe fold of the sheet until the thumb is even with the upper edge ofthe mattress. Hold it there. Then fold smoothly under the mattress thepart of the sheet you have held out and withdraw your hand which youwill find is in a sort of little pocket. This is sometimes called a piecorner, and it is rather like the fold for a mitred corner in a hem.When finished, the under sheet should be tight stretched and smooth.

Spread the upper sheet on the bed wrong side up, then when the hem isturned back at the head of the bed, it will be right side out. Turn thesheet under at the foot twelve inches if possible. Turn the corners atthe foot but do not turn the sides under nor the corners at the head.See that the sheet lies straight, and smooth out all wrinkles.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Straight and Smooth]

Put on the blankets, their upper edges reaching to the place whereyou intend to make the backward fold in the sheet. Fold them underabout twelve inches at the foot, not at all at the sides; smooth themcarefully.

If two people sleep in a bed or if the blankets are narrow, put asingle blanket on crosswise, placing one of the selvages even with the

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edge of the mattress at the foot of the bed, then the ends will hangsome distance over the sides. Some people fold double blankets evenly,some prefer to fold them with one binding a good way below the otherbinding. This preference depends on whether one likes the upper part ofthe bed covering thick or thin, and also whether the blanket is longenough to turn under at the foot when folded evenly. The fold, not thebindings should be at the foot of the bed, in order that, if too warm,

one thickness of the blanket can be easily thrown back.

When all the bedclothes are on, with the exception of the spread, turnback the edge of the upper sheet over the blankets, leaving about afoot of the under sheet exposed. Then fold all the coverings neatlyunder the mattress at the sides, drawing them smooth and straight.

The spread is put over the whole bed. It should hang over at the sidesand foot, far enough to hide the mattress, springs and all under partsof the bed which are not of the same material or finish as the upperparts.

Bolsters are laid flat either under or over the spread at the head ofthe bed. They are not so invariably used as in times past.

If there is no bolster, two pillows are sometimes laid flat in itsplace, and two pillows set on edge upon them. If there is a bolster,the pillows are set edgewise upon it. They must be well beaten,smoothed and set up securely.

If shams are used they should be spread over the pillows and bolsteras smoothly as possible. They are usually supported by tapes fastenedacross the upper corners of the shams on the wrong side, and slippedover the corners of the pillows.

In places where dust and smuts must be constantly guarded against, onemust either use shams or else cover the pillows with the spread. Thislast is often not an agreeable arrangement to the eye, but it is betterthan smirched and dingy pillows.

Bed linen is changed according to the quantity of linen the housewifepossesses, the amount of laundry she can have done, and her own tastein the matter. The common tradition is a sheet a week for each bed,and a pillowcase a week for each pillow regularly used. In this case,the upper sheet becomes the lower sheet during the second week of itswear. This change is made because it is more agreeable to have thecleaner linen nearest one's face, and turned out to view when the bedis opened for the night.

If you do not sleep long and soundly after reading this description ofbed making, I am sure it isn't my fault.

When the bed has been made, the room should be put in order; clothesput in the closet and the closet door shut, the sweeper run over therugs if needful, all visible dust removed, articles on bureaus andtables put in their accustomed places, all drawers tightly closed,faded flowers and burnt matches removed, and everything _straightened_.Then partly close the windows, draw the shades to the same level ateach window, and go on to the next room.

In extremely damp or extremely cold weather, one may have to get alongwith less airing, but it should not be lessened except for grave cause.In some houses, it will be more convenient to make all the beds before

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doing any dusting. If there are people in the house who do not leavetheir rooms until after breakfast, or who wish to occupy them verysoon after breakfast, such rooms will have to be done separately andlater or earlier than the others.

In the evening, bedrooms should be prepared for the night. Waste watershould be carried away, pitchers filled, washstands tidied and beds

opened. Shams and spread are removed from each bed and neatly folded.Leaving the sheet folded over the other bedclothes as it is already,turn them all back until they make a straight wide fold across the beda little above the middle. Then straighten the coverings at the sidesand tuck them under the mattress again, making everything very neatand straight. Put the pillows on the bed as the person who occupies itlikes to have them. This can sometimes be discovered by noticing in themorning how the pillows are placed, unless the person is so exemplaryas to open his own bed for airing. If you are preparing the bed fora stranger put the bolster and pillows back on the bed and allow theguest to arrange them later.

The night clothes and wrapper belonging to the occupant of the roomshould be laid across the foot of the bed or over a chair, and bedroomslippers put beside them on the floor.

This part of the upstairs work adds exceedingly to the comfort ofa family, but I think it is one of the things to be left undone inhouseholds where the work is heavy and the workers few.

_Bathroom._--The bathroom, like other rooms, needs some daily care andsome periodical care.

Daily the stationary basin must be cared for as previously described.

The tub and its fixtures must be washed, and wiped entirely dry. Forthis it is good to have a stiff brush with a handle and a soft cloth.Both these conveniences should always be kept hanging on a hook nearthe tub. It is only common decency after one has used a bathtub torinse and wipe it for the sake of the next person. If a brush and neatcloth are kept near the tub, the good-intentioned will find it easierto cleanse the tub, and the lazy will have less excuse for not doing it.

The wood and metal parts of the closet should be wiped, first with adamp cloth, then with a dry one. The china parts should be scrubbedthoroughly with soap and one of the long-handled brushes made for thispurpose. When the scrubbing is finished, flush the closet and rinse itwith the brush, then flush again. Leave the cover open. The bathroomshould be thoroughly aired and as much sun as possible let in whilethe upstairs work is being done.

Once a week, or twice a week, the bathroom will need a more thoroughcleaning. Wipe the ceiling and walls with water if the finish permits.If not, with a dry cloth or mop. Wash all the fixtures, the woodworkand the floor with soap and water, and carefully dry them. Do notforget the outsides of the tub and basin. If the fixtures are nickel,they should be polished when they really need it, not oftener, withsome patent nickel polish or with whiting. The woodwork of the closetshould be rubbed with oil, especially if the finish begins to be worn.This prevents the wood from absorbing impurities.

If there are rugs in the bathroom, they should be washed as soon asthey show need. No rug which cannot be washed should be allowed in an

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ordinary bathroom.

Many people recommend flushing waste-pipes now and then with a stronghot solution of washing soda. The overflow pipes should be included inthis performance. Good, new plumbing, however can probably be sparedtreatment of this sort.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

Air, Sun, and Water]

Bedrooms are cleaned every week or every fortnight in the same way thatother rooms are. They are apt, however, to contain closets and theserequire some special care.

_Closets._--When a room is being prepared for cleaning, the floorand baseboards of the closet should be wiped with a dry mop orcloth--anything which will not make a dust--and the door tightlyclosed. Once in a while, before the cleaning of the room if there

is time, if not, on some other day, the clothing should be removedfrom the closet, the walls wiped, and everything washed which canbe,--hooks, wire hangers, the rods on which these hang, shelves andfloor should be washed with water in which has been put a generousquantity of ammonia, borax or boracic acid. These things are not likedby the various small insects which annoy housewives. They also help toprevent mustiness and "close" odours. After the washing, everythingshould be carefully wiped dry, and as much light and air let into thecloset as possible. The contents should not be put in again untilthis drying and airing is finished. Do not wash closets on a rainy orhumid day. If they have a musty or unpleasant odour, a few drops ofoil of lavender put on a shelf or on the floor will help to remove it.A little chloride of lime, poured into a saucer and set on the floor

of the closet, will also remove odours. Little bags of lavender orrose-geranium leaves laid on closet shelves add much to the daintinessand freshness of the clothes kept there. The shelves should be coveredwith white paper cut, not folded, to fit the shelf. Folds affordharbourage for insects. Floors should be left without covering of anysort. Ideally, they are of hard wood like the floor of the room.

Clothes get more air, and are less creased and rumpled if they are hungon hangers suspended on a pole or wire, than when they are hung onepiece on top of another on hooks fastened into the wall. Even in a wallcloset, not more than ten inches deep, one gains space by stretching astrong wire from opposite hooks, and putting hangers on this. Four orfive waists or dresses will hang without crushing on such a ten-inchwire. A closet with a shelf in it offers better hanging-space if hooksare put at intervals into the under side of the shelf. A hook like twoJ's, back to back, is made especially for this purpose.

* * * * *

It is well to give bedrooms a look of peacefulness. Some things whichhelp in this are: perfect cleanliness, few decorations, few colours,a bed which looks like a bed, a regard for the occupant's wishes tohave personal possessions one way rather than another, and somethingelse--I have no name for it, but it is there because the housewife haswished, as she made the bed and arranged the room, that the person who

sleeps there may have rest and quiet of heart.

She has folded into the sheets perhaps this prayer:

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_And four great Angels guard this bed, Two at the foot and two at the head._



THE dining room is put in order daily and cleaned periodically in thesame way that the other rooms in the house are cared for. The dailycare of this room, however, has to be a little more thoroughly andthoughtfully given. It should be noticeably neat, carefully aired, anda trifle cooler than a living room. Pure air and the restfulness oforder are favourable and refining to appetite.

To allow fruit or any kind of food to stand in the dining room is apoor custom. Such things attract flies, create an odour of food in theroom, and encourage the indulgent habit of eating bits now and thenbetween meals.

The plant or flowers used on the table need a little care each day.Water in which flowers stand, quickly becomes discoloured enough toshow dark against a white cloth, and soon gives off an unpleasantodour. Even when there is little time for looking after such things,one can take the flowers out, holding them in position, quickly clipoff the ends of the stems and the leaves that are wet, and put themback into fresh water. A plant should be watered each day and have dustand withered leaves removed from it.

The hours for meals should be times of rest and social pleasure, theycannot be if disagreeable sights, sounds, or smells accompany them.Keep the dining room neat, aired and cool. In a clean, well-keptroom there will be less fault-finding, scolding and gloom than in aneglected one. Such a room will also help people to be agreeable,attentive and interesting, in harmony with their surroundings.

_The Table._--If the dining table has a polished top it will needspecial and frequent care. Some people prefer a table of which the topis a plain white wood because it does not need special care. Such atable must of course be kept covered with a linen cloth at meals and atable cover at other times.

A polished table must be constantly guarded from heat and scratches,and must be polished at regular intervals. Where very hot dishes areto be placed the table should have added to the usual protection of anundercloth the further protection of asbestos or basketwork mats. Thesecan be hidden, if you wish, with linen carving cloths or doilies.

Rub the table briskly for a few moments every day with a soft cloth ora piece of chamois skin. About once a week polish it more carefully.Before either of these performances remove any stickiness or greasinesswith a damp cloth.

The mixture of sweet oil and vinegar recommended for furniture isexcellent for a table. (1 tablespoonful of vinegar to 3 of sweet oil.)A mixture of equal parts sweet oil and turpentine is also good. Rub the

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table thoroughly with a soft cloth dampened with the mixture, then rubit with a clean cloth.

Dull spots occasionally appear even on the most carefully guardedtables. Long and frequent polishing will sometimes remove these. If thefinish is seriously injured, however, amateur efforts to restore it aremore likely to make it worse than better.

On account of frequent rubbing and unavoidable wear, the table-leavesin use should often be changed for those not in use, the whole tablewill then be of the same colour and in the same condition.

_Table Setting._--Before beginning to set the table, see that it is theright size. Neither people nor dishes should be crowded if this canpossibly be avoided; it is also undesirable to have the table too largefor the number at the meal.

For dinner the table is first spread with a cotton-flannel or feltundercloth. This is not only to save a polished table from injuries;

it improves the appearance of any table and prevents noise. Over it islaid the linen cloth, the middle crease running the length of the tableexactly in the middle.

In some households a smaller, lighter tablecloth is used for breakfastand luncheon. In others, a luncheon cloth of embroidered linen, lace ordrawn work is used for these less formal meals. In others, the tableis left bare and doilies spread where plates and dishes are to be set.Many people who use doilies or a luncheon cloth for luncheon prefer acovered table at breakfast. These are all matters of taste or economywith one exception. It is the custom to spread the table for dinnerwith a cloth which entirely covers it.

When the tablecloth has been laid, a centrepiece of linen or lace issometimes placed upon it in the centre of the table. If carving is tobe done, a carving cloth is placed at the foot of the table in such aposition that the platter will stand in the middle of it.

All the table linen, when removed, should be refolded in the creasesmade by the iron. Centrepieces and doilies should be laid flat in adrawer or the former rolled on a roller. A little care in this matterkeeps the cloths fresh longer and protects delicate linen from toofrequent washing.

A napkin is laid at each place, on the right or in the centre. Napkinsshould match the tablecloth but this is not always possible becausethey have to be changed more frequently than the cloth. Fresh napkinsevery day at dinner is the agreeable and not extreme method of changingthem; to have fresh ones at every meal is rarely possible or necessaryexcept in hotels; a change twice a week is the minimum at which anydegree of comfort can be maintained.

When all the linen necessary is on the table, place exactly in themiddle of the linen centrepiece the vase of flowers, plant or dishof fruit which is to be the centre decoration of the table. It makesvariety and daintiness if this decoration is flowers or a plant or evena silver or glass vase rather than food in any form. A pretty thinghelps to remind us that eating is not the only thing for which we come

together. It may also afford a topic for pleasant conversation.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke

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Order and Daintiness]

After the centre decoration is placed put on candlesticks or lamps,carafes, decanters, salts and peppers and any large objects which areto be used, leaving places for bread plates, relish dishes and thelike. These things should be arranged symmetrically, not as if they

were men on a checker-board, but with the sort of symmetry which theleaves on a vine have. If there is not some evidence of design in thearrangement of a table, it will look littered.

Add now to the napkin at each place, everything which will be neededduring the meal, or until the serving of the sweet at luncheon or atdinner, or until the serving of fruit as a last course at any meal. Thefinger bowl, doily and silver needed for these courses are frequentlyarranged on the plate to be used and brought to each place at thebeginning of the course.

At the left of the place lay the forks in the order in which they are

to be used; at the right lay the knives in the same order with theiredges toward the plates; at the right of the knives lay the soup spoon.If the dessert spoon is put on the table it is placed at the right ofthe knives and the soup spoon. Spoons are laid on the table with thehollow of the bowl up, and forks with the ends of the tines up.

Besides the silver each place needs a glass for water--glasses areturned up, not down--and others suitable for any beverages which are tobe served. A salt cellar will be needed if individual salts are used.These are not regarded favourably at present but are tolerated if eachhas a spoon. And either a small butter plate or a bread and butterplate and butter knife are put at each place except sometimes at dinnerwhen butter is not served. When meals are formally served a plate is

put at each place which is removed when the first course is brought.

One cannot lay places correctly without knowing the menu for the meal.The food to be eaten determines the objects needed for eating it.

When the table is set with the exception of the food, the sideboard orserving table, or both should be arranged. On these are put dessertor fruit plates arranged with finger bowls and silver, all the chinanot to be heated which will be needed for the courses of the meal,any seasonings or bottled sauces which the family are in the habit ofasking for, a crumb tray and napkin or scraper, a small napkin or doilywith which a spot of gravy or fruit juice could be quickly removed fromthe tablecloth, a water pitcher and a serving tray. If after-dinnercoffee is made on the table, it is convenient to set out all thearticles needed for this on a tray on the sideboard. Room must be kepton the serving table for the vegetable dishes which are usually leftthere during the course to which they belong.

A few minutes before a meal is served is the time to place food suchas pickles, jelly, bread, butter and milk on the table or the servingtable and to fill the glasses with water. If ice is put into each glassit should be done carefully with a spoon. It adds to the appearance ofbutter balls and helps to keep them cool if a lettuce leaf is laid inthe dish under them. They keep their shape and firmness better if keptin a bowl of water when in the refrigerator. At luncheon or breakfast

bread is served on a plate or tray, or the loaf, board and knife areput on the table. At dinner a piece of bread is laid by each place ortucked into each napkin. Hot biscuits keep hot longer if a napkin is

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spread over the plate and folded over them. Cold bread or crackers,also cheese, are often served on a folded napkin, they look better sothan on a plate.

In laying the table, time, steps and thought can be saved by takingas many things as possible from one place at one time. That is,after the linen is on the table. First put on everything needed from

the sideboard, then everything needed from the china closet, theneverything needed from the pantry. All the articles from each placecan sometimes be brought in one trip with the help of a tray. If theflat silver is kept in a basket, it is better to carry the basket fromplace to place and take out what is needed. This saves steps and somehandling of the silver.

When the places where the dishes and silver are to be kept are firstdecided upon, and when the order in which the table is set is firstlearned, both should be done with the thought of saving steps and ofopening drawers and doors as seldom as possible.

Tables should be set without noise. Not only because it is disagreeableto hear the rattling of dishes but because thumps, and clatter, andjingle mean scars on the table, nicks in the china, scratches on thesilver and a lack of that dainty carefulness without which a table isnever perfectly set.

_Waiting._--"Waiting" requires more "head" than other householdemployments. One can keep accounts slowly and laboriously, onecan sweep without possessing much tact, one can even cook withoutpossessing a great degree of administrative ability, or do laundry workwithout a good memory. To "wait" cleverly requires all these qualities.

The object of waiting is that the needs and wants of those seated at

table shall be supplied without effort, often without consciousness ontheir part. It also preserves the orderliness of the table, and makesinquiries about people's wishes unnecessary. One occasionally hears theobjection made to careful waiting that it makes people thoughtlessfor the comfort of others. I would suggest that conversation madeagreeable and amusing to others requires greater and more continuedthoughtfulness than passing the beans and the butter.

The waitress should have in her mind a plan of the meal including notonly the food but also the china, silver and linen needed for servingit. If a meal is more than two courses long, it is often better to havethe plan written out. This is a little trouble, but saves mistakes, andthe necessity of stopping to think when one has not time to think.

The waitress is expected to be in the dining room when the family enterfor the meal. She should be ready to serve the first course as soonas they are seated. If this course is oysters or grape-fruit or somesuch thing, plates containing it are set before each guest. Two platescan be brought at once if there are no plates already on the table; ifthere are, the waitress can only bring one plate for she must removethe empty plate before she can set the other down. When the platesare all on the table she will then pass anything which accompaniesthe course. Sometimes various small relishes and biscuits such as arerequired with raw oysters can be put on the tray and all passed at thesame time.

When the course is finished the soiled plates are removed two at a timeand after that anything from the table belonging to the course. The

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soup plates are then brought and set before the hostess if the soup isto be served on the table. The tureen is placed before her, uncovered,and the cover deposited on the serving table. The waitress stands atthe left of the person serving, takes each plate as it is ready andplaces it before a guest. If the soup is served from the pantry or theserving table, the plates are brought two at a time, as for the formercourse.

With a few changes in detail to be noted below, courses are served asone or other of the two described. This is an outline for serving acourse.

Remove the food of the preceding course.

Remove the plates.

Remove relishes, biscuits, etc., belonging especially to that course.

Remove unused plates and silver belonging especially to that course.

Bring the plates for or containing the next course.

Bring the chief dish of the course.

Serve each person.

Pass anything which completes the course, like sauce or gravy.

Pass anything which accompanies the course, like

vegetables, or sometimes, a salad.

See that glasses are filled, and guests supplied with butter.

Listen for the answer when any one is asked to accept a second helping or consulted about his wishes.

After an interval, pass a second time anything of which a second helping may be taken, provided there is none of it on the plate.

Detail (_a_).--It is the custom for the host to serve the fish and dothe carving. Perhaps it is a survival from the days when these thingswere the trophies of his hunting and fishing. The hostess serves thesoup, salad and dessert.

Detail (_b_).--If the family is large the plates for the meat shouldbe put on the serving table and one placed before the carver at atime. The waitress stands beside the carver with the next plate in herhand and puts it before him when she removes the one which is ready topass. Or if the waitress is too much occupied to do this, three or fourplates can be put before the carver, then three or four more.

Detail (_c_).--A vegetable requiring a separate plate, such as

asparagus or corn on the cob, is served after the other vegetables.A plate for it is first put at the left of each place and then thevegetable is passed. Salad, when served with the meat course, is

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arranged for and passed in the same way.

Detail (_d_).--Everything to which a guest is to help himself is passedto him from the left side that he may comfortably use his right hand.Things which he has already accepted, like a serving of meat or a cupof coffee, are placed before him by the waitress.

Detail (_e_).--Some authorities say that the people on one side ofthe table should be served in the order in which they sit, then thepeople on the other side in the same order, without regard to sex orprecedence. This is well enough for a table full of people of aboutequal age and importance, but in an ordinary family there are apt tobe guests or a grandmother to whom all slight deferences are due. Itook a meal with a family not a great while ago at which the two smallchildren were served before the guests and their mother. Extraordinaryspectacle!

The question whether the hostess shall be served first or not is muchdiscussed. I can only say that I have never yet seen a "guest of

honour" who would not have been glad if the hostess had been servedbefore her.

The outline for serving a course, with the addition of the suggestionsabove, holds good until dessert. At the end of the course beforedessert, the table is cleared of everything except the decorations andglasses. The carving cloth is lightly folded together and carried away.Crumbs are removed and any disarrangement restored to order. Then thedessert plates, arranged with finger bowl, doily and silver are broughtfrom the sideboard. As soon as one is placed before each guest thedessert is served. If it is served by the hostess the waitress takesthe first plate from before the hostess as soon as it is ready andreplaces it with an extra one which she has in her hand. She brings

back the one she removes from before the guest whom she served andplaces it before the hostess when she removes the one filled in herabsence.

The conventional dress for a waitress is a plain black frock with whitecollar and cuffs, a large white apron with a bib and shoulder straps,and a small cap. At breakfast she usually wears a light-colouredcotton frock instead of the black one as this is more suitable for thework she does in the morning. Her shoes should be comfortable for herown sake, and noiseless for the sake of others. The same cleanlinessand daintiness which are necessary in her work should also be herspersonally. I cannot believe that it is ever very difficult to persuadea girl to this. Probably a mistress need only express an interest inher waitress's hair, and teeth, and hands, and pretty looks and theywill soon be well cared for. Such interest on the part of the mistressis not merely requited with an improvement in the appearance of herwaitress. A girl who can put a dainty collar on herself has taken along step toward being able to put a dainty collar on a chop-bone; ifher hands are clean and soft, she will not like disgusting dishwater orsoppy glass-towels any better than her mistress does.

Waiting and elaborate methods of serving meals may easily become anuisance and a burden instead of a help and a pleasure. To try for"appearances" to which the skill and strength of a waitress or amaid-of-all-work are unequal is to produce a worried hostess and

nervous, wearied guests. A certain degree of order, daintiness andformality should characterize every meal, but these things do notdepend upon the number of courses, nor upon the presence of a waitress.

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In a household where there is no maid, thoughtfulness beforehand canprevent any getting up from table except between courses. All the foodand accessories for a course must be placed on the table and servedby some member of the family, and the plates must be passed from handto hand. Sometimes two or even three courses can be agreeably puttogether, as when a salad is served with the meat course, or fruit and

coffee are brought with the dessert. Often in this way a dinner can beacceptably served with only one or two clearings of the table, whichunder other circ*mstances would have been five or six courses long. Alarge tray on the serving table upon which the plates and dishes can beput and all removed together is a great assistance. Upon such a tray,also, everything necessary for a whole course can often be brought fromthe kitchen at one trip. The article known as a dinner wagon is evenbetter as an assistant than a tray.

In a small family it makes less confusion if only one person does thenecessary waiting. A daughter rather than a mother should do this, orthe person who has not done the cooking rather than the person who has.

In a large family two people should do the waiting, partly for speed,partly because it is hard work. There is the further advantage thatwork done by two people is much more cheerful than work done by one.I have little patience with families in which one sister does all thehousework for a week or a month, and then another takes it for the samelength of time. It is well enough to divide the work into departmentsand sometimes exchange those, but no sister should rock on the verandawhile the other washes the dishes alone. In the first place it isnot economic--two could do the work more quickly and then both couldrest. And besides, what a loss of companionship! The most helpful andintimate talks I have ever had with one of my sisters have been whilewe were washing dishes together.

In households where there is but one maid, it is wise to make herduties as waitress few and simple. She is probably not trained for thework, and besides, if she has cooked the meal, she is hot and tiredjust at the moment when she should be fresh and alert. Under suchconditions the waiting is not likely to be well and quickly done. Ifthe maid does those things which prevent any getting up from table,that is really enough for her to do. If, however, you wish her to passplates and vegetables, at least serve the sauce on the platter with thefish, have the gravy for the meat and the sauce for the pudding placedwhere the server can help them, and depend upon those seated at thetable to pass the bread, butter, pickles and jelly which are beforethem.

In clearing the table, the large tray mentioned before is an aidwhich should be allowed to one maid. Any piling of dishes as they areremoved, however carefully done, looks unpleasant; taking two plates tothe pantry at a time costs many steps. The large tray on the servingtable is a compromise between these alternatives which I have foundgood.

Waiting, like table setting cannot become excellent unless it ischaracterized by an almost exaggerated carefulness. Whether the mealis elaborate or extremely simple, evidences should never be lacking ofminute thoughtfulness and of the use of careful hands.

_The Pantry._--A pantry is like a tea basket, or a handy box, or aship's cabin. It is a small space containing a great variety of usefulthings. The one virtue necessary above all others in such a space

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is orderliness. Without it convenient compactness becomes crowdedconfusion.

Things not connected with pantry work should have a place found forthem elsewhere.

Things most frequently used should be on the shelves and in the drawers

which require least reaching and stooping.

Things of the same kind should be grouped together except when thisviolates the previous rule. That is, for the sake of keeping all theplatters together, it is not necessary to use precious space on themost practicable pantry shelf for a platter only used at Thanksgivingand Christmas.

_Dish Washing._--Dish washing is such a frequent and important part ofpantry work that it deserves a few words of description, perhaps ofpraise.

Dish-washing accessories should be within arms' reach as one stands atthe sink. They are: a dishpan, soap, borax or ammonia, towels--softones for the fine dishes, coarser ones for the heavier dishes--a dishdrainer, a sink strainer for scraps. To these may be added a mop and adishcloth if you feel you must have these articles, but I wish I couldconvert you to the use instead of a small-sized whisk, or a littlefibre broom such as is sold for cleaning sinks. Broom straws softenedby warm water will not scratch cut glass and yet are stiff enough touse for washing pots. The little broom can be scalded and dried throughand through on the back of the stove. It does not smell, and dishwashing done with it is as different from dish washing done with acloth, as eating with a fork is different from eating with your fingers.

In a pantry where many dishes are washed a folding table is aserviceable accessory to dish washing. It can be set up to receive thedried dishes, and folded again when no longer needed.

The list of accessories for dish washing done where there is no runningwater is slightly different. One must then have one or two kettlesof hot water on the fire. The dish drainer must have a tray to standon or be replaced with pans. The sink strainer will not be needed. Abowl can be used instead, but not a tin receptacle, for scraps of foodsometimes combine to form acids which eat or discolour tin.

_The Preparation._--For the work of dish washing, first get yourselfready. Put on an apron, preferably one with a bib. If your sleevesare long, either turn them back or cover them with half-sleeves whichbutton tightly round the wrist.

Next put away all food.

Then prepare the dishes. Gather the glass together. Empty the tumblerswhich have contained water, but fill with water those which havecontained milk. Collect the cups and saucers, emptying the cups andrinsing out dregs or tea leaves. Scrape the plates thoroughly with aspoon, not with a knife, and pile each kind together. If there is muchgravy or sauce upon them, rub them off quickly with a discarded crustor a celery stalk. Put the silver into a bowl or pitcher and pour

water upon it. Platters should be scraped like the plates. Fill creampitchers, gravy boats and vegetable dishes with water.

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All this preparation is not old-maidishness and a waste of time. Itsaves time, and dishes, and disgust.

_The Process._--When the dishes have been made ready for washing, poura generous supply of hot water into the dishpan. Put into it a littleborax, or a larger supply if the water is hard. Lay in two or threeglasses. They should be put in edge first, wet inside and out at the

same moment, and not laid close enough to touch each other. Take themout one at a time and immediately wipe them dry and bright. They becomestreaked if allowed to drain. Replace those taken out with others to bewashed. Set the wiped glasses in a space prepared for them on a shelfor table, or if there is little room in the pantry put them on a traywhich can be carried at once to the cupboard. After the glasses, washand wipe any other glass which is not greasy, but leave anything whichis until after soap has been put into the water.

Neither the glass nor any of the dishes should be touched with one'sbare hand after it is lifted from the water, but should be held alwayswith the cloth, wiped and polished with the cloth and set down at last

with a hand still covered.

When the glass is finished, put soap into the water with the aid of asoap shaker or any other contrivance which prevents the soap from lyingin the water or from being stuck on a fork. Make good suds, but notstrong suds, for this injures colour and gilding.

Dishes are usually washed in the order of greasiness, therefore thecups and saucers come next after the glass and after these any plateswhich are but slightly soiled. These cleaner dishes often need norubbing with cloth or brush, but can be lifted out of the water andplaced in a drainer or pan, the cups on their sides, the plates onedge. Rubbing, however gentle, at last wears off decoration. Dishes

must never lie soaking in the dish-water because this also injurestheir decorations. A few of the same kind should be put in the water ata time, washed and immediately removed. This is the chief preventive ofchipping and breaking, and it also allows room enough in the water forthorough washing.

The silver is the next thing to wash. If the water has cooled by thistime it should be changed, or if one has to be economical, it can bepartially changed and more soap added. Usually the flat silver can allbe put into the water at once, then washed a few pieces at a time andlaid carefully in a drainer or pan. Some housewives prefer to wipethe silver, like the glasses, immediately from the dish-water, but asit has to be washed with soap, there is a good reason for rinsing it.Larger pieces of silver must be put in like the dishes, a piece or twoat a time, to prevent dents and scratches.

Next wash plates, never allowing small ones and large ones in the watertogether, then platters, vegetable dishes, milk pitchers, salad bowland gravy boat, putting not more than one or two in the water at a time.

As often as dishwater becomes cool or greasy, change it. This is afixed rule for those who have an ample water supply. If however, it isnecessary to be extremely economical with water, it is better to stintthe dishwater than the rinsing water.

There are two extreme ways of rinsing dishes and a middle way. One ofthe extremes is to immerse the dishes in a pan of hot water and wipethem therefrom. This is indeed cleanly but it takes much water and many

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towels. The other extreme is to arrange them in a drainer and eitherpour scalding water over them or immerse them for a moment in scaldingwater and then leave them to dry by their own heat which they do almostinstantly. A zealous housewife finds it hard to believe that this isas good as wiping, but the smooth, shining dishes which result from itconvince her.

The middle way is to set the dishes in a drainer and pour scaldingwater over them as in the other case, but this time to complete thework by wiping each piece. They are so nearly dry that the wiping isbut a small act, often little more than a keen inspection and a rub forgood measure.

Delicate china must not be rinsed with extremely hot water as a suddenchange of temperature sometimes breaks it as it does glass.

The rinsing method first described is best for silver for it shouldbe thoroughly rinsed in very hot water and dried with a cloth andvigorous rubbing. Any evaporating process leaves it dull and spotted.

As one wipes it, any piece discoloured or dull should be laid aside forspecial attention. Egg stains can be removed with a little salt, oroften just with rubbing them with a cloth which has been used to applysilver polish. If one has no covered shelf or table on which the silvercan be laid as it is wiped, it is well to spread a towel to receive it.This saves noise and scratching.

Carafes, decanters, vinegar cruets or any narrow necked articles canbe cleaned with chopped white potato, or with crushed egg shells. Acombination of crushed egg shells, ¼ cup of salt and ½ cup of vinegaris also good for this purpose. A slim paint brush--the kind used topaint window casings, not pictures--is excellent for washing bottles.The brush end will do the washing and the handle end with a towel over

it will do the wiping. There are regular bottle brushes but I havefound a paint brush better than any one I have yet tried.

Steel knives, whether plated or not, need special care. They shouldnever, _never_ be laid in water but held in the dish washer's handswhile they are washed, then wiped perfectly dry. If they are silverplated they are polished like the rest of the silver except that theyare wet as little as possible. If not plated they must be scoured asoften as used. This helps to keep them sharp as well as bright. Restthe blades flat on a board when cleaning them, otherwise they may bebent or even broken. After they have been scoured, they must be washedwith the same care as before and dried thoroughly. Avoid anything,whether hot water or excessive friction, which greatly heats theblades, for this breaks the handles by expanding the steel pieces whichrun up into them.

Discoloured knife handles will sometimes whiten if scoured with a pieceof lemon dipped in salt and washed off quickly with hot soapsuds.Powdered pumice also whitens them.

After the dishes are washed and wiped, all the cloths and brushes usedshould be thoroughly washed in hot suds, then carefully rinsed. If theycan be hung out in the sun, that is best, but if not, they should behung where they will dry before they are needed again. One may not beable to spare time to wash or even rinse the towels after every dish

washing, but they must positively be washed once a day. Sticky andunpleasant-smelling table appointments quickly result from neglectedtowels and dishcloths.

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And what can be said in praise of dish washing? Well, it is makingthings clean and there is always satisfaction in that; it is a signthat one more thing is finished and there is satisfaction in that, eventhough another begins at once; and, personally I like dish washingbecause it is work that after a little practice can be done almostentirely with hands and eyes, and so the time it takes may be a rest

time, or a thought time, or a prayer time as one wills it.

_Silver Cleaning._--Some people say silver must be cleaned once a week,others once a fortnight, others contend that once a month is enough.A general rule cannot be made, however, for a thing which dependsentirely on particular climate, particular light and heating apparatusand particular standards of care and orderliness. One can only saypolish it as often as it needs polishing and not oftener.

Those silver polishes which are intended to be rubbed on the articlesand then removed with very hot water are the more desirable. A silverpolish which is hard on hands is to be avoided, not merely for the

hands' sake but for the silver's.

To clean silver, one requires a soft cloth and a soft hair brush forapplying the polish; also several other soft cloths, a piece of chamoisskin and a clean, soft brush for polishing.

Rub the polish on smooth surfaces with a soft cloth, on filigree orengraving with a soft brush. Wash in very hot water, wipe with softcloths, polish with chamois skin and a soft brush. Never touch thesilver with bare hands after it comes out of the hot water. To wear apair of chamois gloves while doing this work is an excellent help andprotection.

If silver not constantly in use is kept in canton-flannel bags in abox where there is a piece of gum camphor, it will be as bright whenit is taken out as it was when it was put in. The bags are better thantissue paper, for this sometimes contains chemicals which discolour thesilver. New silver usually comes in such bags, but the time and moneynecessary for making bags for older pieces, are saved again and againby the unaided care they take of the silver committed to them. _White_canton flannel is not good for this purpose, it soils easily and thechemicals used for bleaching it discolour silver.

There remains but to say that ideal dining room and pantry work combinemilitary order with a daintiness which puts pansies into finger bowls.That simple loveliness and devoted thoughtfulness are more necessaryin table service than heavy damask and beautiful china. And that,above all, one must not think that care and work expended upon mealsare put to a poor use. Family meals are deeply hallowed by long customand by sacred associations. We shall not be wrong to try earnestly andgladly to make the meal hours times of loveliness and thankfulness andlaughter.



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KITCHENS have shrunk in size since the days of our grandmothers, not somuch because we know more than our grandmothers as because conditionsof living have changed. Kitchens are no longer used to store wintersupplies which must be kept from the cold, nor are they now used forlaundry and dairy work, spinning and sociability. A house in which

there are many workers, in which there is bountiful providing andconstant hospitality, still needs a large kitchen; on the contrary, anapartment in which the dining room will barely permit six at table maywell have a kitchen in which everything is within hand's reach.

Many of us have no opportunity to choose whether our kitchens shallbe large or small. In building a new house, however, the opportunitysometimes presents itself, and some of the things to consider in makingthe choice are the number of people who are to work in the kitchen,the size and elaborateness of the meals to be prepared there, whetherthere is to be also a pantry and a store room, whether the laundry workis done in the kitchen and whether the servant or servants have any

other place to sit. In regard to these two latter considerations, itmay be safely said that a small kitchen and a small laundry are almostinvariably better than a large room for both purposes; and that a tinykitchen and a tiny servants' sitting room are better both for healthand comfort than a combination. If it is possible, the kitchen shouldbe used only for cooking, and should contain only such things as areneeded for that work.

As a kitchen is a place where especial cleanliness is necessary, soapand water should be no enemy to its contents. Probably a room linedwith glazed tiles is the best kitchen, but as yet these are rare.

_Walls and Woodwork._--Hard-finish plaster painted some light colour

and given a final coating of enamel paint is a satisfactory butsomewhat expensive finish for kitchen walls.

There are several kinds of wall covering of the nature of oilclothwhich look rather like tiles and may be wiped with water. They are notso good as a finish which becomes part of the substance of the wall.

Oil and varnish rubbed into plaster walls make them light yellow incolour, protect them from being discoloured with steam, and produce asurface which may be frequently washed. A coating of oil followed by acoating of shellac has much the same result.

Old, rough walls are better covered with a light-coloured, veryinexpensive paper. If this is coated with shellac the walls maybe wiped with a damp mop. Otherwise the paper should be changedfrequently. This is the reason it should be inexpensive. It is wellalways to get a little more kitchen paper than is needed, that whennecessity arises badly soiled pieces may be stripped from the walls andnew ones fitted into their places.

I once had a whitewashed kitchen and liked it, but it might have lookedodd had it opened on a fire-escape instead of the wood-pile.

Two things are chiefly desirable in the finish of kitchen walls andwoodwork; it ought not to be hurt by soap and water and it ought to

be light coloured. The room is frequently filled with smoke or steamwhich contains some greasiness; this can only be removed from the wallsand ceiling by washing them. People have been known to paint kitchens

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a dark colour with the idea that they showed dirt less. Dirt _should_show. Then there is a better chance that it will be removed. Lightcolours are needed in the kitchen also to prevent dark corners, and toincrease the light from the windows. Much sun is a disadvantage to akitchen; much light is a great advantage. A yellow kitchen cheers mysoul, but many housewives like blue or green better. If you do your ownwork, by all means have the kitchen the light colour most becoming to

you, and get your frocks to match; it's a great help.

_Floors._--The kitchen floor is a greater problem than kitchen walls.Even tiles have one disadvantage, they are cold to stand on. There area variety of substances resembling mosaic or tiling in appearance whichare put down somewhat like cement or concrete. They are without cracksand easily mopped, but have the same disadvantage of being hard andcold.

A hardwood floor such as one might have in other rooms is easilyspotted and injured with the things which are rather likely to bespilled or set upon it. This is true also of a painted floor, with the

added objection that heels and chair-legs quickly mar painted wood.

Linoleum is easily cared for and with reasonable usage lasts well.Oilcloth is less expensive than linoleum but is in no way so good.Neither of these floor coverings, nor paint, should be washed withvery hot water or with any strong or gritty cleaning substance, norshould they be scrubbed with a stiff brush. Such treatment breaksand spoils glossy surfaces. Wash them with a cloth wrung out of mildluke-warm suds. Wipe them dry, otherwise they will be streaked.

When linoleum begins to show wear a coat of spar-varnish or carriagevarnish will restore it satisfactorily. These varnishes are not injuredby water, and they dry quickly. A floor varnished at night in dry

weather may be walked on as much as necessity requires the next day. Itis better in such a case to lay down papers to walk on, and move themoften to prevent sticking.

Sheets of newspaper or brown paper should be laid all over a floorbefore linoleum is put down, otherwise it is almost impossible to getit off the floor when it is worn out.

I wish to copy here a suggestion for finishing a kitchen floor, forwhich I would gladly acknowledge my indebtedness, but I have merely theparagraph signed G. D. which has been cut from some paper.

Plain, boiled linseed oil is a good finish for the kitchen floor. It should be put on when the floor is new or clean of other finish, and applied as needed afterward. Such a floor will have a pleasing, light-brown colour, will not show marks or scratches, and, kept well oiled, will not spot with grease. Heat the oil and apply at night, rubbing it in well. In the morning wipe with cold water, and the floor is ready for use. Wash it with warm water dashed with a little kerosene.

G. D.

Just a plain floor is a convenient kitchen floor on all days except onthose when it must be scrubbed. Such scrubbing is hard, dirty work andtakes a good deal of time. And I know of no alleviation; one must down

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on one's knees and go at it with a scrubbing brush or it will look allthe time as if it needed scrubbing.

_Rugs._--Rugs are needed in the kitchen wherever much continuedstanding is done, as in front of the sink and the range or beside thetable. They prevent linoleum or oilcloth from becoming worn in one ortwo spots, they are sometimes needed for warmth, and they are always

needed to spare the feet and back of the person who does the kitchenwork. It makes as much difference whether one stands for hours on asoft thing or a hard one, as it does whether one sleeps for hours ona board or a mattress. It is as well if kitchen rugs are of so littlevalue that they may frequently be thrown away without regret. A gooddoormat too shabby to put before the front door is a treasure to laybefore the washtubs.

_The sink._--If the kitchen sink is under or beside a window, the potsand pans will more surely be clean, and the dish washer will not havethe irritation of working in her own light. Sinks are apt to be set toolow. For comfort and for health the rim should be about even with the

dish washer's waist. It is convenient to have draining boards on bothsides of the sink, but by no means always possible.

Whatever material the sink is made of it will need careful cleaningonce every day with scouring soap or soap-powder and a scrubbing brush.This is not only good for the sink but for the waste pipes, especiallyif a pan of hot soapy water is prepared for the scouring and emptieddown the pipes when the sink is finished. This will do much towardkeeping the pipes from becoming grease clogged. Porcelain or enamelledsinks are, of course, more easily kept clean than iron or tin ones.

_Tables._--In a kitchen where there is no sink, the substitute shouldbe a steady table placed as far from the stove as possible. If a

definite place is appointed for dish washing even to the choice betweentwo ends of a table, the appliances needed can be hung within reach,and one will naturally pile soiled dishes in that place and go there towash them without taking thought about it.

Besides this table another will be needed on which cake and bread canbe made, or food can be set without fear of contact with soiled dishesor dishwater. This table is equally necessary in kitchens where thereis a sink. Sometimes in small kitchens its place is taken by the shelfof a dresser, the tops of the tubs or a board which, when not in use,folds down beside the wall or the dresser. The point is to have someplace other than the draining boards where food can be prepared.

You will read in magazines that it is lovely to have kitchen tablescovered with white oilcloth. Unfortunately the statement is not alwaysfollowed by its complement, namely, that such a covering must beprotected from being scorched and cut by means of pot boards, asbestosmats or folded newspapers. Several practical cooks and housekeepershave told me that there is nothing so good in the kitchen as azinc-covered table. It is not pretty but one need never spare it anyusage, and at rest times its ugliness may be covered with a cloth.Spots on zinc which will not yield to soap and water can sometimes beremoved with vinegar.

Plain wooden tables are hard to keep in satisfactory order. They are

easily scorched, easily stained, and they require daily scrubbing.

A pretty kitchen is a pride and delight, but the serviceableness and

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practicability of its furnishings must be the first considerationin selecting them. Things which have to be constantly rememberedand guarded take too much thought and strength to be in place in aworkshop. A kitchen should be bright, orderly and noticeably clean, butI think the less it looks like a sitting room the better. Wherever itis possible, maids should have some other place to sit.

_Chairs._--For much of the kitchen work a woman needs the reach,muscular leverage and alertness which she gets from standing. Thereare, however, some things such as preparing fruit and vegetables,stoning raisins and beating eggs which she can do as well sittingdown. If the kitchen is as it should be, a workshop, stools are thebest seats with which to furnish it. They may be scrubbed, they takeup little room, and they afford an opportunity to rest, without anaccompanying temptation to loiter. "Sittin' back" is in some places anequivalent phrase for "inactive." It picturesquely explains why peoplework more alertly sitting on stools than in chairs.

If the kitchen is also the maids' sitting room, it must have

comfortable chairs in it. But they should be made of _scrubable_materials, and cushions should be covered with wash fabrics. Rockingchairs are the worst possible kind for a kitchen, they are especiallyirritating to the ankles and temper of the cook.

_Shelves._--Shelves are necessary for kitchen comfort. They are fordishes, crockery, utensils which can not be hung up and for stores ifone has no store closet. As it is easier to have things stand one deepon shelves, more narrow shelves will be needed than wide ones. Somepeople get along with a few shelves for the sake of having them shutin with glass doors; others have many shelves like open book-cases andkeep the pans, dishes, cups and bowls turned upside down. Stores haveto be kept in tightly closed receptacles in either case. Most utensils

are the better for being kept on open shelves or hung on hooks in thelight and air. That is a rare pot closet which is quite agreeableeither to eye or nose.

Shelves painted white, or covered with white oilcloth or white paper,are neat and pleasant to look at. Painted ones are probably the leastcare, they have only to be occasionally washed and few things injurethem. Plain wooden shelves ought always to be covered, as they areeasily stained and become darkened with dust.

A special shelf or a special place on some shelf is needed for receiptbooks.

_Hooks._--Each utensil which is to be hung up should have its own hook.If two or three are hung on the same hook, it is difficult to takedown the undermost article. Rows of hooks should be so arranged thatthe hooks alternate instead of coming directly under each other. Potsand kettles which are hung up should be turned bottom outward as thisprotects the insides from dust. The lids of pots and kettles may beeasily hung up on a string stretched tightly across the inside of acloset door, or against the wall between two hooks. The handles rest onthe string and hold the lids up.

Either a roller for a hand towel or a hook on which one can be hung isa necessary fixture in the kitchen, for a cook needs to wash her hands

many times a day.

_Curtains._--Shades are necessary to modify the light and to draw

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at night, but the case seems to be against curtains in the kitchen,even against sash curtains. There should be nothing at the windowsto intercept light and free currents of air, and nothing in the roomanywhere which catches dust and smoke as curtains do.

_Light Fixtures._--Light fixtures are better overhead. An additionalside light by the sink, or near both sink and range when possible is a

valuable convenience.

_Clock._--A good clock should be part of the kitchen furniture for thesake of punctuality. An alarm attachment which can be turned off beforeit has run completely down is a help to a cook's over-burdened memory.If it is set for the time when the eggs will be boiled, or the bread ora cake must be looked at, or the meat will be roasted, there will thenbe one less thing to remember and absence from the kitchen will not soinvariably cause disaster.

_An Ornament._--If you or the cook would like an ornament in thekitchen, the delightful thing to have is a copy of a Delia Robbia

terra-cotta. Bright coloured and washable, like the rest of thekitchen! You will laugh perhaps at the idea of carrying the matter ofbrightness and cleanliness so far, but do you not know how dingy anddepressing the kitchens of otherwise clean and lovely houses oftenare? It is because things which might be cheerful coloured are dullcoloured, and because many things are half soiled for the reason thatthey cannot be easily washed. Sometimes too, it is because nobodycares whether the kitchen is pleasant or not.


The number and size of kitchen utensils depend upon the space in which

they must be kept and the number of persons in the household. Theirquality and, to some extent, their number depend on what we are able topay for them.

If the space for keeping utensils is small, their number must be keptdown to the minimum. Even with ample space, it is well now and then toweed out superfluous or inadequate utensils, for each adds a straw'sweight to the work of the kitchen. It is only a straw, but you knowwhat happened to the camel.

One woman who entertains a large family at Thanksgiving and Christmas,and at other times has a household of two with an intermittent maid,buys each year at the five and ten cent store the large utensils andserving dishes needed for the Thanksgiving dinner. She keeps themuntil after the Christmas dinner, then gives them away and returns toher usual outfit of small things. Perhaps you ask, why not use thebig ones all the time instead of having two sizes? Because they takemore time, more food, and in the case of the serving dishes, make apoor appearance. A household which constantly changes in number needstwo sizes, one small and one large, of each thing in frequent use. Ofcertain things there should be two or three in any kitchen; such are,bowls, mixing spoons, platters, paring knives, saucepans and doubleboilers. It is well to get such things of different kinds and ofgraduated sizes because they are for various uses.

_Materials._--The kitchen is prettier if all the utensils are of thesame colour and in general of the same material. Expense and practicalusefulness, however, must be considered before good looks. If the

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kitchen is blue, do not buy a bowl with a pink band round it, a caketurner with a red handle and a brown agate pot, when you can perfectlywell get them in suitable colours. On the contrary, if the brown potis a more convenient shape and size than a blue or white one, get thebrown one; if a thick iron frying pan cooks food better than a whiteagate one, take the iron one.

Enamelled utensils are neat, pretty, seldom acted upon by chemicalsin the food and are cared for more easily than those of any othermaterial. They are expensive, but last well if they are not abused.

Tin articles are light to handle and cheap, but soon become discolouredand require a good deal of scouring to keep them in fair condition.

Iron utensils are heavy, hard to keep clean and rarely necessary.

Pots and pans are now frequently made of aluminum. It is a luxury tolift them and they are pretty, but they are also costly and easilyinjured.

Copper utensils have become rare; their chief recommendation is beauty.A College kitchen in Oxford glowing with rows and rows of copperplatters and dish covers and pots and kettles remains in my memory as aglory and a splendour. But, my stars! what generations of scourers havetoiled to see their crooked images appear in those red-gold surfaces!

Copper articles have a disadvantage beyond requiring much care. Ifused for food they should be tin lined and the lining kept in goodcondition, for sometimes chemicals in food form a poisonous combinationwith the copper. Our ancestors did not have to worry about copper pots.When they were poisoned, they drowned a witch or went on a pilgrimage,and recovered or not according to their constitutions.

Wooden conveniences for the kitchen, such as rolling pins and pastryboards are also gradually giving place to those made of othermaterials, for the reason that they are less cleanly and less cool thanarticles made of glass or metal.

_Selection._--The cook's personal preferences should be consideredwhenever kitchen utensils are bought. Many housewives consult theircooks before purchasing new articles. I know one who sends the cook tothe shop to do the purchasing. That such thoughtfulness and care arenot always exercised is evidenced by the fact that some excellent cooksown a number of cooking utensils themselves because they do not findthem in the kitchens in which they work, and can seldom persuade theirmistresses to buy them.

The most satisfactory way to get a kitchen outfit is to buy a fewthings at a time. They will in this way be more carefully selected, theexpense will not fall heavily on one week or on one month or even onone year, and there will be things new and old. To have all new thingsis only a little less inconvenient than to have all old things.

To give a list of appliances most necessary for the kitchen is to makeevery one who reads it wish to improve it. That may be a good reasonfor giving it. Be that as it may, here is such a list:

A teakettle A dishpan A frying pan

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A coffee pot A tea pot A broiler A colander A meat chopper A pail A pastry board

A rolling pin 3 mixing bowls A meat pan A pudding dish A bread board A bread knife 2 and 3 qt. saucepans 2 and 3 qt. double boilers A cake tin 3 tins for layer cake 3 bread tins A cake turner

A can opener A lemon squeezer A corkscrew A fine-wire strainer A potato masher An egg beater A nutmeg grater A graduated quart measure A graduated pint measure A few spoons of different sizes A few plates, cups and saucers A cake box A bread box

Tin boxes or Glass jars for flour, meal, sugar, coffee, etc. A scrubbing brush A sink strainer A soap shaker A holder for scouring soap A whisk for dish washing A pin cushion which can be hung up A memorandum pad which can be hung up 3 pie plates 2 jelly moulds An apple corer A few knives and forks A large wooden spoon A large agate spoon A knife for potatoes A large tray A salt box A pepper box A flour dredger 1 doz. dish towels 6 scrub cloths 2 pudding cloths 6 cloths for pots and pans Scissors

Does it seem a very long list? You would not cook one day in akitchen fitted with these things without thinking of something else

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you would like to have. This is an austere list. It contains noneof the luxuries which one's heart desires, such as tongs for hullingstrawberries.

_Care._--Pots and pans require thorough washing and wiping. Wash themwith a brush, good hot soapsuds, and occasional applications of ascouring soap. Wipe them with squares of cheese cloth or old flour and

sugar bags washed and hemmed for the purpose. These cloths are betterthan finer or heavier ones for they take up water quickly and are nogreat loss if they are darkened by tin or iron utensils. The dishclothis the poorest thing with which to wipe pots and pans, for it cannotpossibly be free from soap and grease.

Scouring soap is not intended for direct application. A brush or clothshould first be rubbed on the soap, then on the article to be scoured.

Only utensils made of iron may be scraped. Such treatment quicklydefaces and wears out other substances. Scraping may be entirelyavoided if every utensil is filled with water as soon as it is no

longer needed in cooking. Very greasy things should be filled with warmwater and kept warm. If a pot has been burned put a tablespoonful ofwashing-soda into it and fill it with water. Set it away for a day ora night, or for both, and at the end of the time no scraping will benecessary to get it clean. This must not be done if the pot is made ofaluminum, in that case, soak the pot without soda.

Stains may usually be removed from aluminum pots with silver-soap.Whitening such pots with acids is not a very wise thing to do. Thebetter way is to reserve them for delicate uses, they will then notbecome seriously discoloured.

Do not wash articles made of wood in water in which other things have

been washed, for wood absorbs grease. Nor is it well to scour them witha brush or a soap coarse enough to roughen their surfaces.

Iron pots and pans cannot be scrubbed too vigorously. Scrub the fryingpan until the inside feels like wet, black satin; it is then trulyclean. Both powdered pumice-stone and salt are good for scouring ironor tin articles which are smoked or stained.

Unless precautions are taken, food fried or baked in new pans willstick to them, and will not brown. A new iron frying pan should bescrubbed hard with soap and sand or ashes, and should then have waterboiled in it. New cake and bread tins should be scoured, greased andbaked.

If you find that the kettle is becoming encrusted with lime from thewater, boil vinegar in it. This quickly removes the encrustation if ithas not been allowed to grow thick before the attempt is made.

A careful housewife does not wash coffee pots and tea pots in dishwater. She empties them, rinses them, scours them a little if they needit, rinses them again, scalds them and finally wipes them dry.

The care of some kitchen contrivances begins before they are bought.That is, when buying such articles as potato mashers, egg beaters andtheir like, notice whether they have intricacies which will be hard

to keep clean. Do not be dazzled by the marvellous mashing or beatingperformed by a demonstrator, but take the thing in your own hand andsee whether it is smooth and simple, and whether there is a way in

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which it can be easily washed.

It can be said of kitchen dish washing even more emphatically than ofpantry dish washing, that going into it up to one's neck is no virtue;better keep out of it as much as possible. To make the work easy, todivest it of disgust, and even to find satisfaction in doing it, areevidences of skill and cleverness.

If one does not take the satisfaction in making things clean previouslyreferred to, or if one has not pleasant thoughts to think while washingpots, then one may pass the time like a rhythmic black mammie and croonand croon a tune which has no end.



IT IS more healthful to have a cellar--a _clean_ cellar--under a housethan not to have one.

And why?

Soil has air in it. Sometimes it is good air, sometimes bad air. Thesoil newly turned up in the fields gives off a fragrance of its own.The earth thrown out on the city pavement by a man looking for a leakin a drain gives off an odour which makes one hurry one's steps. Thesoil under a house gives off vapours and gases in the same way, goodor bad according to location. Inasmuch as we cannot watch the air

under the house as we can that in a room and would not always know itsquality if we could, it has been found better to dig out a chamberunder the house and line it with stones or cement, or even leave itjust a hole in the earth into which air can be admitted. For thisallows a circulation of upper air under the house which is safer tohave there than air from the soil.

The more we can shut out the breath of the soil in towns and citiesthe better, for such soil is full of drains and gas pipes, and thedirt of streets and crowded houses, and sometimes has buried in itcess-pools and leaking sewers. Unpleasant to think of? Yes, but thethought does very well as a spur to make one keep the cellar clean anddry.

A cellar sealed with cement is the best kind, because the soil-air isshut out unless there comes a crack in the cement. Walls of stone laidin cement are good but not so good, and brick walls are not nearly sogood. Stones are a little porous and bricks very porous. Sooner orlater moisture comes through either. In the country one often seescellars with hard earth floors and they are fairly sanitary as long asthe soil surrounding the house is used only for cleanly purposes. Butbefore plumbing is put into the house or a sewer into the neighbourhoodthe cellar should be cemented.

I have seen cellar windows which would not open. They ought to open

easily and one at least should be opened for a while every day thatit is not snowing or raining. They ought also, to be kept as clean asother windows are, for light is necessary to the healthfulness of the

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cellar. Have the window openings covered with wire netting, strongenough on the one hand and fine enough on the other to exclude cats andflies.

Every cellar without any exception whatever should be white. White!

They may be painted white or whitewashed white. There are also

substances of the nature of calcimine which are somewhat crystalline,and are therefore especially good for whitening dark cellars.

Whitewash is often decried because it rubs off upon things which touchit and also because flakes of it fall upon the floor and into uncoveredreceptacles. If a little size or thin glue is put into whitewash itsobjectionableness in these ways is much lessened, and comes to weighlittle against its excellent recommendations; it is purifying, itdestroys the eggs of insects, it is inexpensive and it requires nospecial skill to apply it. There are a few words on this last point inthe chapter on housecleaning.

Whatever is done to the cellar walls should be done over again once ortwice a year. There is much dust, much dampness and much need for morecleanliness even in the cleanest cellars.

It is more convenient if the cellar is divided into rooms, that foodand stores of various kinds may be kept separate from the furnace andthe fuel. If this is not possible, the next best thing is to have thecoalbin enclosed, for the coal makes the worst of the cellar dirt.There should be a window in the coalbin through which the coal can beput in.

One needs shelves in the cellar and receptacles for vegetables. Theshelves are better fastened to supports attached to the ceiling than

put against the walls. There are then no cracks and corners, for dust,and the shelves are removed from the possible dampness of the wall.Some people advocate the building of bins for vegetables. This isprobably advisable if one must store many. For keeping only a few,neat boxes or baskets which may be moved about, are better. If onekeeps food in the cellar, a cupboard or safe made of wire netting is aconvenience. It should stand on legs which raise it two or three feetoff the floor. If preserves and jellies are kept in the cellar, it isdesirable to have a cupboard more completely enclosed than the safe, toprotect them from dust, quick changes of temperature and dampness.

Shelves, cupboards, bins and partitions should be as white as the walls.

The housewife pays a visit to the cellar now and then with no errandexcept to look at it. The survey may give her housewifely satisfaction,and it may give her something to do or to have done. She should go withnose alert and eye keen.

Is there any odour noticeable beyond that slight unavoidable cellarsmell? If there is, is it a spoiled sweet potato, or clam, or a workingjar of canned fruit, or--what? Find it; never rest while there is anobjectionable smell in the cellar.

Is there a damp spot on walls or floor? If there is the cause must befound and put an end to. If there is one near the place where the waste

pipes leave the house which cannot be accounted for, send for a plumber.

Is there any article out of its place? Is there any pile of things

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which might be looked over and in part thrown away? Is there anyrubbish? Is the wood piled evenly? Is the coalbin swept up? Are thevegetables in boxes or bins and not on the floor or in corners? Arethere cobwebs? Does the floor need sweeping? Are the windows clean andsome of them open?

If, in spite of everything one can do, the cellar smells a little

musty, some unslacked lime put in a box on the floor will help it. In acellar with an earth floor it is well sometimes to sprinkle lime in thecorners and in out-of-the-way places where it will not be walked upon.

Things which must stand permanently in the cellar are the better forhaving racks to stand upon. Barrels, ashcans, kerosene cans and casescontaining bottles sometimes ooze moisture, sometimes absorb moisturefrom the floor; their bottoms thus become sodden and mouldy.

Slats nailed on cross-pieces and laid on the floor for such things tostand upon, make the cellar and its contents more cleanly and more dry.They are a contrivance of great use and simply obtained. It is, of

course, pleasant to have them made by a carpenter, but three discardedbedslats nailed on the flat sides of some short pieces of floor joistmake a rack that will hold two barrels, and small racks can be made ina few minutes from the boards of a box cover nailed on the cleats thathave held the box together.

When the cellar floor is swept be sure to use something, preferably notwater, to lay the dust. This is especially necessary when the furnaceis in use. Dampened sawdust is good for this purpose.


Before settling down to live in a place, one should know where thewater supply comes from, and where waste water goes. If the watersupply in a city or town comes from a far away stream or an artesianwell, and the health of the community is fairly good, one may restcontent. If, however, the water is notably or probably polluted, oneshould boil or at least filter water for drinking and cooking and inevery way possible safeguard the family health from this source ofdanger.

A sewerage system which does not carry the waste a long distance awayfrom any dwelling is not a very good system. If one must depend uponsuch a system it is well to do and say everything possible to have itimproved.

If you live in a country place and must depend on a surface well forwater, you must guard it. Have it cleaned at regular intervals; havethe cover or platform over the mouth such that no creatures can getin, nor water or dust fall through; allow no rubbish nor waste waterto be thrown near it; keep it well pumped off and see that pigpens,barnyards, poultryyards and closets are as far off as possible. Thecustom of keeping butter or other food cool by hanging it down thewell is picturesque, but I can think of no other recommendation of thepractice. Keep everything out of the well from frogs to custard pies.

Certain very simple natural laws have been taken advantage of in

getting water in and out of houses. It is an old axiom that waterwill not run up hill, and one would not expect it to run up a house,but another old axiom saves us from carrying rivers upstairs in

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pails--namely, water seeks its level.


If water is poured into a U-shaped tube, it will stand just as highin one side of the U as in the other, will it not? When a house issupplied with water from a spring on the side of a hill, we have a big

irregular U-tube like this dotted line. As even the garret of thishouse is lower than the spring, the water will have _force_ when itcomes from the pipes, that is, it could yet go higher because it hasnot run as far up in the U on the house side, as it is on the springside. Sometimes, as we approach a town, we see a water tower on ahill, or a tall iron stand-pipe. They are one side of a U in a watersystem. Water is pumped into the tower or the stand-pipe, then it runsinto the houses of the town through many pipes which are the otherside of the U. There is a library of books one may read about thisU performance--its relation to other laws, its limitations and thethousand uses to which it has been put. But all there is to the simple,extraordinary fact, can be seen in a bent glass tube which you can hold

in your hand.

The side of the U which comes into a town is no longer one pipe butmany water mains in streets and multitudes of little pipes in eachhouse. These last are part of the house plumbing. A plan of thehouse with the position of all the pipes indicated should be one ofthe housekeeper's possessions. She may not be able to do much aboutdisordered plumbing--in fact, she had better not try to do much; it isnot a safe direction for amateur effort--but such a plan is of use toworkmen who come to do jobs in the house, and it may keep some zealoushusband or brother from driving a nail into a gas pipe in an effort tohang a picture.

Water is frequently got out of the house by giving it a good start andthen letting it run down according to its nature. Waste pipes are asfar as possible perpendicular, and the start is given the water by theweight of a basin or a tubful, or by the sudden emptying of the tank ofthe closet.

That principle of the U, however, is used also in the disposal ofwaste water. It is the principle on which many traps are constructed.Traps are contrivances for closing the connection between a house andthe public sewer. If you have an imagination, or if you will readVictor Hugo's description of the Paris sewers in "Les Misérables" asa help to imagination, it will not be necessary to explain why thisconnection should be closed.


To make a trap with what is known as a water-seal, the U pipe is turnedinto an S fallen forward, [symbol s fallen forward]. Under the basinin the bathroom one can see the waste pipe and can imagine where thewater is inside. It flows out of the basin into the first loop of theS, rises into and flows over the other loop until the basin and pipeare emptied as far as _a_. The water has then no power to force itselfbeyond the loop _b_, and stays in the first loop, forming a waterseal between the sewer and the outlet of the basin. Through that loopwater gases and odours cannot come, and across the loop at _b_, impure

substances and water cannot force their way back from a lower level.

It is well to rinse a basin, sink or tub after it is used, and one must

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be particular that the closet flushes generously, for the water left inthe loop should be clean water. If one merely allows the water from tubor basin to sink through the outlet some of that water remains in theloop, and it is water which contains impurities washed from clothes orbodies. You see the practice of rinsing bathtubs and basins has more init even than courtesy.

Occasionally, clean, hot, strong suds should be emptied down basins,tubs, sinks and closets and allowed to stand in the loop, as thiscleanses the pipe from impurities or grease which may have adhered toits sides. Disinfectant may be used in the same way when it is thoughtto be needed. Strong disinfectant should not be left long in a trap asit may eat the joints or even the substance of the pipes. On the otherhand, in judging the quantity to use, allowance must be made for thefact that disinfectant poured down pipes goes into water, into a gooddeal of water in the case of the closet.


Two things sometimes make traps ineffectual. One is that the loopmay not be deep enough. An S like this, for instance, is useless. Somuch water can flow out that an air passage is left at _a_, and thepipe is not sealed. The other thing is that sometimes the suction ofwater rushing down from an upper story will draw the water out of thetraps it passes on the way. Either of these difficulties can only beremedied by an alteration in the plumbing arrangements. The concern ofthe housekeeper in the matter is not to rest if the waste pipes giveoff the least odour, and to get as reliable a person as possible toinspect them. To have good plumbing is worth going without much. Intruth, it is the last thing in which to exercise economy. In building anew house, it is better to have no rugs, no table-linen, and to leavetwo rooms unfurnished or unbuilt than to put in _cheap_ plumbing.

Besides the traps under basins, sinks, etc., there is usually a trapwherever a drain-pipe runs out of the house to the street sewer.This doubles the protection. These traps are sometimes outside thefoundation wall, sometimes in the wall and occasionally inside thecellar. One should know where they are in case anything is the matterwith them, and also in order that one may not put up a shelf for milk,or a bin for potatoes directly over the spot where a trap is.

Drainage systems always have to be ventilated. A pipe which extendsout of the roof of the house, or runs up the side beyond the eaves,or comes up from the foundation or the lawn with a hood over it, is aventilator for the drainage. They help to make the air pressure rightin the pipes and they prevent the gathering of foul explosive gases. Asthey are vents for such things, one does not want them close to a roofwindow, nor under a veranda, nor anywhere except in the open upper air.

_Ashes and Garbage._--To say that only liquid substances should bepoured down waste-pipes seems a needless repetition of what everybodyknows, yet it is knowledge constantly disregarded and sometimesforgotten even by careful people. Waste substances not suitable for thepipes have to be somewhat classified. Cities and towns have differentregulations for the disposal of waste and sometimes one is requiredto do a good deal of sorting in compliance. There are, however, threegeneral classes of waste; ashes, garbage and trash.

Nothing should be put into ashcans except ashes. Garbage is the wastefrom food, or any substances which are wet or subject to decomposition.

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Trash is papers, cans, bottles, egg shells, glass, hair, dust, brokenobjects of all sorts and kindred things. This class may have to besubdivided several times for the convenience of people who remove it,but the three main divisions in house waste are made not on account ofrequirement but for the sake of neatness and decency.

For all these things it is preferable to have covered cans; for

garbage it is necessary. In a house, ashcans will usually be kept inthe cellar convenient to the furnace. Trash receptacles can be keptthere also. They should be covered, and large enough to hold thetrash without spilling. Garbage cans should be kept outside the houseif possible. Often a little place can be built for them close to theback door, enclosed in an area or on a back porch. Such an enclosureneeds some means of ventilation and should be periodically scrubbed,then disinfected with chloride of lime or some such thing. In flatsor apartments, where the garbage can must be kept in the kitchen, itis a good plan to wrap the garbage in many thicknesses of newspaperand put these bundles into the can. When this method is employed thecan is less unpleasant and less difficult to clean. This cleaning

is disagreeable work but it must be done or the can will becomeexceedingly offensive. One is fortunate if such work may be done outof doors. First rinse the can with cold water and, if necessary,assist the process with a wad of newspaper tied on a stick. Pour therinse-water on the ground or through a sink strainer. Then pour intothe can a liberal allowance of hot water and put some strong washingpowder into it. Rub the sides and bottom of the can with an old brushor broom kept for the purpose. Pour out the water, rinse the can withclean water and ammonia and begin its usefulness again by putting intoit the contents of the sink-strainer or the scraps that you gather offthe ground where the first rinse-water was poured.

The disposal of various forms of house waste in country places usually

requires more care and attention than the same matter in cities andtown. One gets little outside help, and the customary methods are oftenuntidy and unsanitary.

Water may be poured on grass or flower beds or on the ground, if one iscareful not to put it in the same place with any frequency. Soapy waterthrown on garden paths will help to keep the weeds from growing. Waterfrom an ice-cream freezer is good for the same purpose. Wash water, orwater carried down from bedrooms should never be thrown on a vegetablegarden. One cannot be sure that the earth, and the air, and the rainwill take up the impurities soon enough to keep the vegetables frombeing contaminated.

Some garbage can be buried; some can be burned. A weekly bonfire is anexcellent thing in places where there is no regular means for disposingof waste. Into it can go most of the trash and some of the garbage inthe shape of vegetable husks and parings, and other things not verymoist.

A little care on the part of the housewife will make an outdoor closetan entirely sanitary convenience. It should be made as cleanly aspossible inside and out by means of paint or calcimine, and frequentscrubbing of all its wooden fittings. One of these fittings shouldbe a good-sized box with a scoop or fire shovel to go with it. Thisbox should be kept filled with earth--not ashes--of which a liberal

quantity should be put down the closet whenever it has been used. Anearth closet, as it is called, if carefully looked after, is neveroffensive. No waste water should ever be emptied down such a closet,

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and depth should not be obtained by digging out the ground under thebuilding, because rain water will gather in the depression thus made.The interior of the closet should be shallow and earth-covered. Thesetwo characteristics make frequent removals of the contents necessary;this is troublesome but sanitary.


To make and manage fires one must understand them. They are simple andeasy to understand, but they are also capable of giving a person who isunacquainted with their ways great trouble and anxiety.

_A Wood Fire._--A wood fire on the hearth is the simplest one in ahouse. Can you make it? One must have in the first place, a hearth,a flue and a draught. The hearth is merely a place in the floor laidwith stone or brick to put the fire on. A flue is a chimney or a partof a chimney over the hearth to carry off the smoke and to increasethe draught. The desperate aborigine who sprang up weeping and choking

with smoke and chopped a hole in his new bark roof, discovered that itnot only let out the smoke but made the fire burn better. It made adraught. The draught is the air that draws up the chimney. It is causedchiefly by the fact that warm air rises. The air in a room draws up thechimney if it is warmer than outside air, and when a fire is lightedand the air at the bottom of the chimney becomes very hot, it draws uphard and quickly. Sometimes when a fire smokes people say, "The chimneyis cold," that is, the chimney is so cold that the hot air ascendingbecomes chilled and heavy before it reaches the top of the chimney, anddoes not draw out hard and quickly enough to make a strong draught. Sothe smoke stays down instead of going up, and the fire does not burnwell. The remedy is to burn as much paper and light, dry wood on thehearth as you can until the chimney is warmed a little.

If there are a hearth, a flue and a draught, the next thing to observeis whether there are ashes on the hearth from a former fire. If thereare a few, brush them together into a neat, flat pile under the flueand against the back of the chimney. If there are many, remove some,but never all unless you do not expect to have a fire again for a longtime. Ashes hold heat. They are soon warmed by the new fire, and helpto keep the coals hot. Just as a "cozy" keeps heat in a tea pot and afur coat keeps heat in you.

Place the andirons straight and close enough together to support theaverage length of the wood. If one can get a big heavy piece of wood,that should first be put in at the back of the hearth.

On the bed of ashes between the andirons or on the bare hearth putpaper crushed into soft balls.

If the kindling is little sticks, lay the fire by the pig-sty method.That is, on the soft paper balls lay two little sticks parallel withthe andirons, then two more little sticks with their ends crossing theends of the first pair, [#] keep on doing this, laying the sticks firstin one direction then in the other until the sty is two or three railshigh. Then lay two larger sticks in an X on the top and the fire isready for lighting.

If the kindling is blocks and shavings scatter them loosely overthe paper balls, keeping it all in a small space but not packing orcrushing it together in the very least.

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When we light a fire or blow a fire, we do so from the bottom becauseit is the draught sweeping up through the fuel which makes it igniteand burn. The fuel should therefore be laid loosely with many cracksand holes for air. The advantage of making paper into balls is that onecannot pack balls closely.

Light the fire from a light or from another fire or with a match.This is the shortest and simplest act in fire making, but the mostextraordinary. It would take some one wiser than three philosophers,four scientists and twelve owls to tell you what the flame is whichsprings up on the hearth. A springing flame has remained through alltime such a mystery and wonder, that the poet, the musician and thedevotee have woven it into rhythm, and music, and worship--and what ismore, a boy and a fox terrier will keep still before it for half anhour.

When the fire is lighted, first the paper burns easily and quickly,then the small pieces of kindling light more slowly and burn more

slowly, and from them the small pieces of wood light yet more slowlyand burn yet longer, and when they are really burning one may put onthe ordinary sticks, leaving always cracks between for the air andflames to draw through. Three sticks are needed to keep a good fire; aheavy one at the back, in front of it a stick almost burned through anda fresh one.

The person who lays the fire, unless she is expert, should light it.There is no way of learning how to lay it, nor of finding out thepeculiarities of the fireplace and the fuel, except by seeing how thefire acts when it is lighted.

_A Coal Fire._--The coal fire in the kitchen in no way differs in

principle from the wood fire on the hearth. The arrangements for it,though, are different. A range or a stove holds the fire instead ofthe hearthstone. The smoke and draught, instead of going directly upthe flue, are led to it by a stove pipe. The draught must get into thestove in order to go up through the fire into the chimney.

The reason that a fire in a stove is more difficult to understand isthat we have several contrivances for regulating and utilizing theheat. Most of these are called draughts or dampers. One knows from thewords what they are for; the draughts let in draught at the bottom ofthe fire, the dampers in some way damp the ardour of the fire.

Stoves or ranges even of the same make are rarely exactly alike, butone can learn to manage the draughts and dampers in a few minutes'examination by keeping in mind the fixed principle that a stream of airenters under the fire, flows through the fire and passes out throughthe chimney. That to make the fire hot, we do our utmost to removeobstructions from the stream; that to deaden the fire, we obstructthe stream as much as we can. If we want the range hotter, we open adoor or slide open some slits which will let in air _underneath_ thefire, and we open the damper in the stove pipe, that is we make asmuch passage-way for draught through the pipe as we can. If we wantthe range less hot, we let in air _on top_ of the fire, and shut thepipe damper, that is, the space for the draught to go up the pipe ismade smaller and air coming in on top of the fire meets and checks air

coming from underneath.

The terms used in regard to regulating fires are confusing. When

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people say _open_ the draughts, they mean let the stream of air flowunobstructed, but it is often accomplished by shutting something, suchas the slits at the top of the fire, and any opening in the stove pipe.The reverse is also true. _Shutting_ the draughts means obstructingthe stream of air, and often requires opening places which let in airgoing in a contrary direction to the regular draught, such as, openingsin the pipe and at the top of the fire. This is the reason that it is

better to get the principle of the draught thoroughly in mind and thenwork the dampers and draughts in accord with it, rather than to followblindly directions which may utterly mislead.

Pipe dampers are sometimes inside the pipe with only a little handleoutside. Such a damper is a circle of iron with a small hole in themiddle. When the handle is vertical, the circle is vertical and thepipe is open. When the handle is horizontal, the circle is horizontal,and the pipe closed except for the small hole in the circle.

Besides dampers which regulate the amount of heat, there are ovendampers which regulate its direction. An oven damper is a contrivance

by which heat is directed over or under or around the oven. When theoven is to be used, the heat is directed there; when it is not, theheat is allowed to concentrate elsewhere. These oven contrivances arenot usually visible, and are worked by a handle on the outside of thestove. Sometimes directions for moving the handle are on it; if not,one must experiment to find out what happens.

No one can cook with any certainty until she thoroughly understands thestove or range used. This is best done by "making it work"; openingeverything which will open, turning everything which will turn, findingout what everything is for, taking things apart and putting themtogether again with "'satiable curiosity." If one does this before thefire is lighted, and then lights the fire, there will be few mysteries

left unsolved.

Though the principles to be remembered in lighting a coal fire in astove are the same as those which govern the lighting of the woodfire on the hearth, there are some variations in the process and someadditional acts to perform.

If there are ashes in the stove they must be dumped and removed. Theycannot warm the coals as in the hearth fire, and if left under thegrate they obstruct the draught. The fire maker is fortunate if thegrate of the stove is so constructed that the ashes may be dumped. Ifthis is not the case the grate must be shaken until it is empty. Thatas little dust as possible may come out into the room, close all theopenings in the stove before beginning to shake the grate and do notopen them again until a few minutes after the shaking is over.

Lay in the grate of the stove a wood fire like the one on the hearth:balls of paper, loose kindling, larger sticks crossed, and allwith many cracks between. But in addition sprinkle over the top afire-shovelful of coal. Be generous with kindling and wood: it takesstrong heat to ignite coal.

Just before lighting the fire see that the stream of air isunobstructed; all the openings at the bottom of the fire open, all theopenings at the top shut, the pipe unobstructed, and the heat directed

_away_ from the oven.

Light the fire from below; this is often most easily accomplished

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by crushing up a sheet of newspaper, putting it under the grate andlighting it. When the sticks are really burning, put on anothershovelful of coal and as soon as this begins to ignite, put on twomore. Much coal put on at a time smothers the fire.

In spite of frequent and terrible accidents people persist in lightingfires with kerosene. It is more sensible never to do it, but if you

sometimes do, at least do it in a sensible way, that is, soak wood orpaper in the oil and put it into the grate, then lay the fire as usual.Never, _never_ bring the oil can near the range at any time or for anypurpose. Almost invariably the use of oil to light the fire is anindication of laziness or ignorance.

It is more economical of time and fuel to keep the kitchen fire overthan to let it out every night. In a good stove, fire which is properlyraked and cared for can be kept week after week, month after month,just as it can be kept in a furnace.

The daily care required by a coal fire is outlined below:

At night, the fire should be thoroughly raked and coal enough put on tolast until after breakfast. Leave the draughts open a few minutes untilthe gas has burned off, then shut them for the night.

The first thing in the morning, open all the draughts and get the firewell up. It ought not be necessary to put on coal.

After breakfast, rake the fire thoroughly, put on coal and empty theashes.

After luncheon put on as much coal as will be necessary to produce agood fire at dinner time.

When a hot fire is needed for many hours feed it with a few coals at atime; this will not deaden the fire and yet will keep it from burningout. A fire which shows red underneath and has a few black coals ontop is in a healthy condition. As soon as all the coals are red theheat begins to wane.

_The Furnace Fire._--The ability to run the kitchen fire will enablethe housewife to tend the furnace occasionally. If, however, she wishesto care for it regularly, she will need to seek instruction from somecompetent person who can show her the use of the particular draughts,gauges, thermometers and other indicators by which the fire and thesteam or water are regulated.

A skilled person's aim in managing a furnace is perfect regularity.Necessary care should be given it every day at the same hours, and thefire should be kept as far as possible in the same condition. It isinjurious to the fire and to the furnace to attend to it too often ornot often enough; and the house will never be evenly heated if the fireis first allowed to get very low and is then urged to an unusual height.

Stoves, furnaces and chimneys need occasional cleaning. Furnaces shouldbe cleaned when the fire is let out in the spring, and carefully lookedover in the fall by a competent man. Ranges which are not used in thesummer should be treated in the same way. Other ranges should be

cleaned and looked over once a year.

At some time when the kitchen fire is out the inside of the stove

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should be swept, and the dust removed through an opening for thepurpose in the back or side of the stove.

About once a year all the flues in the house ought to be cleaned.This is for two reasons, one, because the soot with which they becomecoated is a non-conductor of heat and keeps the chimneys from warmingquickly; the other, because soot is inflamable. When we say a chimney

is on fire, we mean that the soot on the inside is burning. It makes aterrifying roar, but don't stop to listen to it. Shut all the openingsin the stove. Throw salt on the fire. If there is a fireplace insteadof a stove at the bottom of the chimney close the opening in some way.This may sometimes be done with a rug or a thick newspaper held tightlystretched over the opening of the chimney. It must cover the wholeopening and must not be allowed to draw in on the fire. The point is tokeep the air from rushing up the chimney to feed the fire. This is doneby shutting out the air and by sending up gas from the burning saltwhich is inimical to fire.

_Gas Range._--A gas range is a much simpler matter from a mechanical

point of view than one in which coal is burned. There is little todo except keep it clean. It is lighted as any gas burner is lighted,though preferably with a taper instead of a match, for in that caseyour hand is not near enough to be burned by the first leap of theflame. Fix firmly in mind which one of the little co*cks supplies eachburner, and also that the co*cks turn to the left to supply the gas, tothe right to turn it off. If when a burner is lighted, it "burns back"with a roaring noise, turn the gas off and wait a moment or two beforelighting it again. It will then light in the usual way.

The iron sheet under the top burners needs washing about once in twodays, oftener if anything is spilled or boils over into it. Moreoccasionally the burners should be washed and the holes all made clear

with a wire or a broom straw. It does not hurt any part of a gas rangeto wash it; it does it good. Some people prefer not to black theirranges. The loss in appearance is made up for in the comfort of nothaving the range rub off black on hands or cloths.

The rack and drip pans for broiling must be washed every time they areused; otherwise, the grease left on them will smell and smoke andsometimes catch fire if the oven burners are lighted. It is well to rubthe grease off the grate and the drip pan with a paper while they arestill hot, it makes them easier to wash.

Sometimes the fat in this drip-pan catches fire while the broiling isyet going on. Usually people draw out the pan and blow out the blaze,but this is dangerous. Milk poured directly on the flame with a bigspoon will quench it.


Watch the bills which come in for light and water. If they varyconsiderably and for no discoverable cause, or if they seemunreasonably large, have some one come and see if there are leaks, ifthe metres register correctly, and if they have been correctly read andthe bills made in accordance with the readings.

Light bills naturally increase from June to December and decrease fromDecember to June. They will be larger in a stormy month than in abright one, and in an apartment with dark rooms than in one without.

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Water bills will be larger if the washing is done in the house than ifit is not. Both light and water bills will be somewhat larger if thenumber of people in the household is increased. These things and anyother household changes must be considered in accounting for variationsin light and water bills.

The cost of both these commodities can usually be kept within bounds

by avoiding waste, such as burning a reading light by which no oneis reading, or five lights in the ceiling, two of which would notbe missed, or neglecting to turn off range burners until five orten minutes after the cooking is finished, or leaving faucets halfturned on, or running the tub and basin over every time they are used.Sometimes a reasonable carefulness in such things saves the necessityof stricter economy.

The man who comes to read your gas, water or electric metres willusually be willing to teach you how to read them, if you ask as ifyou wanted information and not as if you wanted to catch him in amistake. I might say here that plumbers, carpenters and furnace men

if approached in the same way often prove very instructive. They arehuman, and can rarely resist the treat of giving information when thechance is offered to them. One can learn a great quantity of usefulmechanics from them, besides things about their wives and children,both amusing and edifying.

These are pictures of a gas-metre at the beginning and end of a month.


The hands on the dials move in the directions the arrows indicate. Readthe number last passed by the hand on each dial, beginning with the onefarthest to the left and add two ciphers. _x_ reads 57600; _y_ reads

63800. The difference is the amount of gas used in the month.

If you cannot take the two ciphers on faith, there is another way ofreading the metre. Observe the words over each dial. Dial _c_ is in thehundreds moving toward "1 thousand," it therefore reads 600. Dial _b_is in the thousands moving toward "10 thousand," and therefore reads7000. Dial _a_ is in the ten thousands moving toward "100 thousand,"and therefore reads 50,000. Together they amount to 57,600, the numberobtained by the other method.

This is the picture of an electric metre:


To read the metre:

Each hand moves in the direction indicated by the arrows.

Read the figure that the hand has actually passed, beginning with thedial to the left.

755 K. W.'s

Subtract last month's reading from this reading and the difference willbe the amount consumed.

Viz: 755 726

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---- 29 K. W.'s.

The dials here are a simpler arrangement, as they merely represent theusual numeration--units, tens, hundreds, thousands.

This metre is in an especially instructive condition, because the

1,000's dial gives no reading. The hand has not yet reached 1.


A refrigerator serves its purpose better if it is placed in a pantry oron an enclosed porch. If it must be put in the kitchen, it should havethe place farthest from the fire.

The drain pipe of the refrigerator, which carries off the water fromthe melting ice, sometimes empties into a pan, sometimes connects withother pipes which carry the water out of the house. It should never

connect with the other drainage of the house, nor lead to any well orsewer which receives other drainage. No traps or plumbing contrivancesare perfect enough to protect food which is shut up closely with theopening of a pipe connecting even remotely with the drainage system.Properly the drain pipe of the refrigerator should empty into an openbasin or sink in the cellar, which in turn drains off into the ground.

The next point of importance after the disposal of its drainage, isto keep the refrigerator clean. Guard against spilling things on itsshelves, wash the ice before it is put in, if it is not clean, and donot keep in it things with a strong or penetrating smell--An innocentdish of cold-slaw unthinkingly put into the refrigerator produces anodour which will startle the person who next opens the door.

A refrigerator needs cleaning once or twice a week. It should not becleaned oftener than is necessary because cleaning wastes the cold. Forthis same reason wash it with cold water unless something greasy hasbeen spilled in it, and never leave the doors open one second longerthan is necessary.

Collect beforehand everything required for the cleaning, that, when thework is once begun, it may be finished quickly. One needs cold water inwhich there is baking soda, borax or boracic acid (2 oz. to the qt.),a brush for scrubbing, cloths for wiping, something long and slim withwhich to clean the drain pipe and a tray or pan to hold the ice whilethe ice compartment is being cleaned.

Take the food out of the refrigerator, then the ice. Quickly butthoroughly scrub and wipe dry the compartment for the ice, notforgetting the drain pipe. In many refrigerators the drain pipe can beremoved for cleaning. Replace the ice and shut it in. Then scrub andwipe the other compartments or shelves, and include the pan and thefloor under the refrigerator in this cleaning.

It is hardly necessary to say that rubbish and unsightly objectsought not to be tucked away behind or under the refrigerator. Itssurroundings should be as clean and well-aired as possible.

A refrigerator is at its best when it is full of ice. To keep it fullis usually found economical as well as sanitary. If the ice is gone andit will be some hours before a new supply will be brought, keep the

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doors of the refrigerator open until it can be refilled. Without icethe refrigerator becomes the very worst sort of crowded, unaired foodcloset.

If one has difficulty in keeping an old or poor refrigerator sweet,one or two pieces of charcoal wrapped in gauze and laid in the cornerswill help. They will need renewing frequently. No disinfectant, however

odourless and harmless, should be put into the refrigerator or into thewater with which it is washed. Soda, borax or boracic acid answer thesame purpose and hurt nothing.

This chapter has concerned itself with what might be called thehousehold genii. They have always, as old tales will tell you,been powerful and troublesome servants, yet withal valuable andfascinating. And, nowadays, we have many inventions for keeping themin order which would have made life easier for old-time sorcerers andmagicians who sought to govern them by rubbing lamps and saying rhymes.




HUMAN beings must eat. Under ordinary circ*mstances this is neither adisagreeable nor a despicable duty. Just now, however, it is a dutywhich is being made unduly conspicuous. Even those of us with gooddigestions and excellent appetites can hardly sit down to a meal

without taking some thought concerning nutritive values and the use ofbeverages, things which should not be thought of except by housewives,doctors and nurses, whose business they are. People watching their ownsymptoms and doctoring themselves, people constantly observing theirown thoughts and feelings, and people studying their own diet anddigestions are all in the same class--they are all made ill by too muchpersonal attention.

Mr. G. K. Chesterton has said a wise word on the subject of keepinggood health. It is: "The one supreme way of making all those processesgo right, the processes of health and strength and grace and beauty,the one and only way of making certain of their accuracy, is to thinkabout something else." He supports this idea with the command: "Take nothought what ye shall eat or what ye shall drink."

The only person in a household who should busy herself with mattersof diet is the housekeeper. The other people ought to be too busy andtoo interested to think of diet and digestion between meals, and toocourteously occupied in being agreeable at table to think of them then.

Knowledge concerning diet and digestion, both valuable and useless, canbe had without asking.

The grocer sends you with your purchases a pamphlet on nourishment;a restaurant menu furnishes a few thoughts on mastication; warnings

against coffee drinking glare at you in the street cars; libraryshelves are crowded with books on health, food, and so on. When we goout to luncheon or have guests to dinner, matters of diet and digestion

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are talked of so freely that we seem to eat with a chart of thedigestive tract before our mind's eye, and we suspiciously watch whileinnocent food, which unobserved might have given vitality and cheer,becomes a cause of weariness and depression.

To know enough to feed a family wisely, agreeably and economicallywithout becoming over-careful, or perhaps a faddist in regard to

food is indeed very difficult. For one thing, avoid fixed rules andarbitrary ideas in catering. Digestions are as different as noses andthumb signatures; one can, therefore, neither invariably forbid onething nor insist upon another. On the contrary, digestions are asalike in general as noses and thumb signatures, and it is, therefore,unnecessary and harmful that any member of a family should beespecially provided for and cooked for unless that person is an invalidliving upon a prescribed diet.

I believe a simple and successful rule for those who have nothingto do with the meals except to eat them is: Eat what is set beforeyou and find something amusing to say or to think about. It is a

little difficult at first, both to eat things one does not especiallycare for, and to think up something amusing, but it soon becomes ahabit. Meals are not times for stoking an engine, even with the mostthoughtfully selected fuel, but times for the renewal of life. Thereis a meditative by-path which leads off from this thought concerningthe reasons that meals are in some cases the most sacred and spiritualrites of religion. We must not wander there, however, but may note inpassing the reason for saying Grace at meals which is suggested by thisthought. A Grace blesses a gift of new life and is a thanksgiving forit.

But that meals shall fulfil their office of renewing life and gladness,it is necessary that the woman who selects and arranges them shall have

some knowledge and shall expend some care. It need not be elaborateknowledge, nor burdensome care, just a usual quantity of each.

It has been discovered that human bodies are composed of chemicalelements just as are cabbages and doctors' prescriptions. Some ofthe elements of which we are composed are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon,nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, potassium, calcium, and there areothers yet. It would seem a simple matter to find out just how much ofeach of these things we contained and then to keep up the supply byeating or inhaling them in the required quantities, but you can be surethere is nothing as dull and matter-of-fact as that in this interestingcreation. We are not doctors' prescriptions, we are even a bit moreremarkable than cabbages, and it is not just correctly measuredproportions of oxygen, nitrogen and potassium that we need, but energy,and heat, and flesh, and blood. Therefore, it is that when we consultsome wise table of statistics in which the nourishing value of food isgiven, we do not find it given in terms of oxygen and hydrogen and therest, but in terms which indicate heat, energy and building material.

Tables of the composition of foods are usually made in the followingterms: Refuse, Water, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, Ash. Added tothese there will often be a division headed "Calories." The calorienevertheless is not a food substance, it is the unit by whichenergy-giving heat is measured. Just as a ribbon is measured in yardsand molasses in cupfuls, so heat is measured in calories.

"Refuse" means that part of food which cannot be eaten or which couldnot be used by the body if it were eaten, as bones, fibres, seeds,

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parings, pods and shells.

"Protein" is an inclusive word for the chief substances in food whichthe body can use in rebuilding itself as use wears it out.

"Carbohydrates" are the fuel of the body. They are converted at onceinto heat and energy, or if there is a surplus they are often stored

in the body in the form of fat to be used when nourishment is lessabundant.

"Fat" is also fuel, a more concentrated form of fuel than thecarbohydrates. A certain quantity is stored in the body as a reserveheat supply.

The word "Ash" in food tables stands for the mineral matters which areused in our bodies for building bones and teeth, and for a few otherpurposes; these minerals are for the most part building materials, butare not so important as protein and are needed in smaller quantities.

Human bodies are constituted to withstand adversities and to bear theexperiments and mistakes which we make; therefore it is that thoughthese food substances usually serve the purposes attributed to themabove, yet when need arises the body is able, for a time at least,to use one for the other. This is a provision, however, for specialand adverse occasions. Ordinarily food should be supplied in thevariety and proportion which will enable the body to use each class ofnourishment for its own purpose.

Roughly estimated, an average person's diet should be about one-fifthprotein, one-fifth fat and three-fifths carbohydrates. That thecarbohydrates exceed the others in quantity is easily accounted for.They are not such concentrated fuel as fat, therefore a greater

quantity is needed; they are consumed to make heat instead ofbeing built into the body as protein is; therefore, we need morecarbohydrates, just as we need to renew the coal supply in a house morefrequently than to renew the carpets.

The foods from which we derive protein are chiefly meat, fish, milk,beans, peas, bread and other articles made of wheat, corn, oats, andlike grains.

Vegetables, with the exception of beans and peas, furnish chieflycarbohydrates.

Fats are derived for the most part from the animal food which we eat.Butter, for instance, is chiefly fat, and the proportion of fat inbacon is more than half.

But because nearly every kind of food contains other constituentsbesides the one which is chief, the housekeeper who wishes to make wisem*nus will need more and more detailed statements of food values as sheis able to get and understand them. If she has hitherto thought littleabout such matters, she will probably not know that the United StatesGovernment has very kindly employed people to make years of experimentsand to write books and pamphlets for her help, nor will she know thatshe may have these last merely by asking the Department of Agriculturefor them. They are not made into attractive booklets, but they are

by no means dull reading. Farmers' Bulletin No. 142, for instance,called "Principles of Nutrition and Nutritive Value of Food," andwritten by Dr. W. O. Atwater, is brief, helpful and most interesting.

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The figures in the table given below were taken from this Bulletin.But there are things which may be derived from this and the many otherfood pamphlets issued by the Government which are quite as important asdefinite statistics. They are things which give the housewife a feelingof comradeship with many people who are working earnestly with and forher; things which increase her interest in her own small part of thework and which give her a helpful sense of its dignity.

For many reasons it is impossible for a housewife to make an _exact_calculation of the amount of nourishment which she gives her family.The figures in even the most carefully made tables are, of necessity,averages or approximates, for food varies in quality in differentlocalities and at different seasons. Moreover, the figures in thevarious government reports upon food values and in books giving suchstatistics differ somewhat, nevertheless, there is sufficient generalagreement upon which to base an intelligent effort to make wise as wellas agreeable menus.

On this account, a housewife who is neither very learned nor very

experienced can yet wisely regulate her menus by keeping in mind thegeneral character of a day's nourishment and helping out her lack ofchemical knowledge with a table of food values such as the one below.The general aim in providing food, as has already been said, is tofurnish all the varieties of nourishment which the body requires andthe chief ones in about the proportion of a fifth protein to a fifthfat to three-fifths carbohydrates. That is, either the per cent. ofprotein or the per cent. of fat multiplied by three should about equalthe carbohydrates. This is, of course, a very rough and general wayof estimating, but I believe it to be a practical way to begin thestudy and application of a branch of difficult and as yet slightlyestablished knowledge.

================================================================== |_Refuse._ | | _Water._ | | | _Protein._ | | | | _Fat._ | | | | |_Carbohydrates._ _Food Materials._ | | | | | |_Ash._ ________________________|______|______|______|______|______|______ | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | Per | cent.| cent.| cent.| cent.| cent.| cent. BEEF: | | | | | | Chuck ribs | 16.3 | 52.6 | 15.5 | 15.0 | .... | 0.8 Ribs | 20.8 | 43.8 | 13.9 | 21.2 | .... | .7 Rib rolls | .... | 63.9 | 19.3 | 16.7 | .... | .9 Round | 7.2 | 60.7 | 19.0 | 12.8 | .... | 1.0 Rump | 20.7 | 45.0 | 13.8 | 20.2 | .... | .7 Shank, fore | 36.9 | 42.9 | 12.8 | 7.3 | .... | .6 Porterhouse steak | 12.7 | 52.4 | 19.1 | 17.9 | .... | .8 Sirloin steak | 12.8 | 54.0 | 16.5 | 16.1 | .... | .9 | | | | | | Corned beef | 8.4 | 49.2 | 14.3 | 23.8 | .... | 4.6 Canned corned beef | .... | 51.8 | 26.3 | 18.7 | .... | 4.0 Dried and smoked beef | 4.7 | 53.7 | 26.4 | 6.9 | .... | 8.9 | | | | | | VEAL: | | | | | |

Breast | 21.3 | 52.0 | 15.4 | 11.0 | | .8 Leg | 14.2 | 60.1 | 15.5 | 7.9 | | .9 Leg cutlets | 3.4 | 68.3 | 20.1 | 7.5 | 1.0

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| | | | | | MUTTON: | | | | | | Flank | 9.9 | 39.0 | 13.8 | 36.9 | | .6 Leg, hind | 18.4 | 51.2 | 15.1 | 14.7 | | .8 Loin chops | 16.0 | 42.0 | 13.5 | 28.3 | | .7 | | | | | | LAMB: | | | | | |

Breast | 19.1 | 45.5 | 15.4 | 19.1 | | .8 Leg, hind | 17.4 | 52.9 | 15.9 | 13.6 | | .9 | | | | | | PORK: | | | | | | Ham | 10.7 | 48.0 | 13.5 | 25.9 | | .8 Ham, smoked | 13.6 | 34.8 | 14.2 | 33.4 | | 4.2 Shoulder | 12.4 | 44.9 | 12.0 | 29.8 | | .7 Shoulder, smoked | 18.2 | 36.8 | 13.0 | 26.6 | | 5.5 Loin chops | 19.7 | 41.8 | 13.4 | 24.2 | | .8 Bacon, smoked | 7.7 | 17.4 | 9.1 | 62.2 | | 4.1 Salt pork | | 7.9 | 1.9 | 86.2 | | 3.9 | | | | | |

SAUSAGE: | | | | | | Bologna | 3.3 | 55.2 | 18.2 | 19.7 | | 3.8 Pork | | 39.8 | 13.0 | 44.2 | 1.1 | 2.2 Frankfort | | 57.2 | 19.6 | 18.6 | 1.1 | 3.4 | | | | | | POULTRY: | | | | | | Chicken, broilers | 41.6 | 43.7 | 12.8 | 1.4 | | .7 Fowls | 25.9 | 47.1 | 13.7 | 12.3 | | .7 Goose | 17.6 | 38.5 | 13.4 | 29.8 | | .7 Turkey | 22.7 | 42.4 | 16.1 | 18.4 | | .8 | | | | | | FISH: | | | | | | Cod, dressed | 29.9 | 58.5 | 11.1 | .2 | | .8

Cod, salt | 24.9 | 40.2 | 16.0 | .4 | |18.5 Halibut, steaks | 17.7 | 61.9 | 15.3 | 4.4 | | .9 Mackerel, whole | 44.7 | 40.4 | 10.2 | 4.2 | | .7 Shad, whole | 50.1 | 35.2 | 9.4 | 4.8 | | .7 Herring, smoked | 44.4 | 19.2 | 20.5 | 8.8 | | 7.4 Salmon, canned | | 63.5 | 21.8 | 12.1 | | 2.6 Sardines | 5.0 | 53.6 | 23.7 | 12.1 | | 5.3 | | | | | | SHELL FISH: | | | | | | Oysters | | 88.3 | 6.0 | 1.3 | 3.3 | 1.1 Clams | | 80.8 | 10.6 | 1.1 | 5.2 | 2.3 Crabs | 52.4 | 36.7 | 7 | .9 | .6 | 1.5 Lobsters | 61. | 30.7 | 5.9 | .7 | .2 | .8 | | | | | | EGGS: | 11.2 | 65.5 | 13.1 | 9.3 | | .9 | | | | | | DAIRY PRODUCTS: | | | | | | Butter | | 11.0 | 1.0 | 85.0 | | 3.0 Whole milk | | 87.0 | 3.3 | 4.0 | 5.0 | .7 Skim milk | | 90.5 | 3.4 | .3 | 5.1 | .7 Buttermilk | | 91.0 | 3.0 | .5 | 4.8 | .7 Condensed milk | | 26.9 | 8.8 | 8.3 | 54.1 | 1.9 Cream | | 74.0 | 2.5 | 18.5 | 4.5 | .5 Cheese, full cream | | 34.2 |25.9 | 33.7 | 2.4 | 3.8 | | | | | |

FLOUR, MEAL, ETC.: | | | | | | Entire wheat flour | | 11.4 | 13.8 | 1.9 | 71.9 | 1.0 Graham flour | | 11.3 | 13.3 | 2.2 | 71.4 | 1.8

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Wheat flour, roller | | | | | | process, high and | | | | | | medium grades | | 12.0 | 11.4 | 1.0 | 75.1 | .5 Low grade | | 12.0 | 14.0 | 1.9 | 71.2 | .9 Macaroni, vermicelli, | | | | | | etc. | | 10.3 | 13.4 | .9 | 74.1 | 1.3 Wheat breakfast food | | 9.6 | 12.1 | 1.8 | 75.2 | 1.3

Buckwheat flour | | 13.6 | 6.4 | 1.2 | 77.9 | .9 Rye flour | | 12.9 | 6.8 | .9 | 78.7 | .7 Corn meal | | 12.5 | 9.2 | 1.9 | 75.4 | 1.0 Oat breakfast food | | 7.7 | 16.7 | 7.3 | 66.2 | 2.1 Rice | | 12.3 | 8.0 | .3 | 79.0 | .4 Tapioca | | 11.4 | .4 | .1 | 88.0 | .1 | | | | | | BREAD: | | | | | | White | | 35.3 | 9.2 | 1.3 | 53.1 | 1.1 Brown | | 43.6 | 5.4 | 1.8 | 47.1 | 2.1 Graham | | 35.7 | 8.9 | 1.8 | 52.1 | 1.5 Whole wheat | | 38.4 | 9.7 | .9 | 49.7 | 1.3

Rye | | 35.7 | 9.0 | .6 | 53.2 | 1.5 | | | | | | SUGARS, ETC. | | | | | | Molasses | | | | | 70.0 | Honey. | | | | | 81.0 | Sugar, granulated | | | | |100.0 | Maple syrup | | | | | 71.4 | | | | | | | _VEGETABLES_: | | | | | | Beans, dried | | 12.6 | 22.51| .8 | 59.6 | 3.5 Beans, lima, shelled | | 68.5 | 7.1 | .7 | 22.0 | 1.7 Beans, string | 7.0 | 83.0 | 2.1 | .3 | 6.9 | .7 Baked beans, canned | | 68.9 | 6.9 | 2.5 | 19.6 | 2.1

Beets | 20.0 | 70.0 | 1.3 | .1 | 7.7 | .9 Cabbage | 15.0 | 77.7 | 1.4 | .2 | 4.8 | .9 Celery | 20.0 | 75.6 | .9 | .1 | 2.6 | .8 Corn, green, edible | | | | | | portion | | 75.4 | 3.1 | 1.1 | 19.7 | .7 Cucumbers | 15.0 | 81.1 | .7 | .2 | 2.6 | .4 Lettuce | 15.0 | 80.5 | 1.0 | .2 | 2.5 | .8 Mushrooms | | 88.1 | 3.5 | .4 | 6.8 | 1.2 Onions | 10.0 | 78.9 | 1.4 | .3 | 8.9 | .5 Parsnips | 20.0 | 66.4 | 1.3 | .4 | 10.8 | 1.1 Peas, shelled | | 74.6 | 7.0 | .5 | 16.9 | 1.0 Peas, canned | | 85.3 | 3.6 | .2 | 9.8 | 1.1 Potatoes | 20.0 | 62.6 | 1.8 | .1 | 14.7 | .8 Rhubarb | 40.0 | 56.6 | .4 | .4 | 2.2 | .4 Sweet potatoes | 20.0 | 55.2 | 1.4 | .6 | 21.9 | .9 Spinach | | 92.3 | 2.1 | .3 | 3.2 | 2.1 Squash | 50.0 | 44.2 | .7 | .2 | 4.5 | .4 Tomatoes | | 94.3 | .9 | .4 | 3.9 | .5 Tomatoes, canned | | 94.0 | 1.2 | .2 | 4.0 | .6 Turnips | 30.0 | 62.7 | .9 | .1 | 5.7 | .6 | | | | | | FRUITS, BERRIES, ETC.: | | | | | | Apples | 25.0 | 63.3 | .3 | .3 | 10.8 | .3 Apples, dried | | 28.1 | 1.6 | 2.2 | 66.1 | 2.0 Bananas | 35.0 | 48.9 | .8 | .4 | 14.3 | .6

Grapes | 25.0 | 58.0 | 1.0 | 1.2 | 14.4 | .4 Lemons | 30.0 | 62.5 | .7 | .5 | 5.9 | .4 Muskmelons | 50.0 | 44.8 | .3 | | 4.6 | .3

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Oranges | 27.0 | 63.4 | .6 | .1 | 8.5 | .4 Pears | 10.0 | 76.0 | .5 | .4 | 12.7 | .4 Raspberries | | 85.8 | 1.0 | | 12.6 | .6 Strawberries | 5.0 | 85.9 | .9 | .6 | 7.0 | .6 Watermelons | 59.4 | 37.5 | .2 | .1 | 2.7 | .1 Apricots, dried | | 29.4 | 4.7 | 1.0 | 62.5 | 2.4 Dates | 10.0 | 13.8 | 1.9 | 2.5 | 70.6 | 1.2

Figs | | 18.8 | 4.3 | .3 | 74.2 | 2.4 Raisins | 10.0 | 13.1 | 2.3 | 3.0 | 68.5 | 3.1 | | | | | | NUTS: | | | | | | Almonds | 45.0 | 2.7 | 11.5 | 30.2 | 9.5 | 1.1 Chestnuts | 16.0 | 37.8 | 5.2 | 4.5 | 35.4 | 1.1 Cocoanuts | 48.8 | 7.2 | 2.9 | 25.9 | 14.3 | .9 Cocoanut, prepared | | 3.5 | 6.3 | 57.4 | 31.5 | 1.3 Hickory nuts | 62.2 | 1.4 | 5.8 | 25.5 | 4.3 | .8 Peanuts | 24.5 | 6.9 | 19.5 | 29.1 | 18.5 | 1.5 Walnuts, black | 74.1 | .6 | 7.2 | 14.6 | 3.0 | .5 Walnuts, English | 58.1 | 1.0 | 6.9 | 26.6 | 6.8 | .6

| | | | | | Chocolate | | 5.9 | 12.9 | 48.7 | 30.3 | 2.2 Cocoa, powdered | | 4.6 | 21.6 | 28.9 | 37.7 | 7.2 ----------------------------------------------------------------

A table given as this one, in percentages instead of quantities,may seem at first sight too indefinite to be of much service to ahousekeeper who naturally wishes to know the quantity of food to giveher household as well as the proportions of its composition. I havepurposely avoided giving a food table which deals with quantitiesbecause I believe this one to be more useful to a beginner. One'sfirst calculations in food values can hardly be other than approximateand inexact. Not many girls, when they begin their housekeeping, have

either the time or the ability to make the calculations which even thesimplest schemes for computing a dietary require. Besides, an effortto provide scientifically correct meals on the part of a housewife towhom the effort is unfamiliar and difficult is apt to produce monotonyin the meals, worry in her, and disregard and forgetfulness of thefamily's particular tastes.

A first and simple step for her to take is to make herself familiarwith the chief value of different articles of food and of the moreusual combinations. When she takes this last matter into considerationshe will find that many combinations which are traditional, which wereprobably made merely by instinct, are, when tested, palatable wisdom.For instance, bread is a very complete food in itself except that it isa little lacking in fat, but people have been spreading butter on itfor centuries, and thereby completing it.

Consider the traditional combination of baked beans and brown bread.Referring to the table we find beans a fairly well-balanced food, buta little lacking in fat. In brown bread neither the protein nor thefat come anywhere near being a third of the carbohydrates. Therefore,when we combine these two articles we shall be a little lacking inprotein and a good deal lacking in fat. Butter on the bread will helpthis last difficulty and the wisdom of our ancestors will help out therest. What did they combine with these two? Codfish cakes, to be sure.And in these there is codfish which has a good deal of protein in it;

egg which has protein and fat; butter which is chiefly fat and potatowhich is chiefly carbohydrates. We might make a diagram of it, likethis:

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Cod fish Protein Egg Protein Fat Butter Fat Potato Carbohydrates

As a dish to combine with two articles somewhat lacking in protein and

fat, we may feel ourselves content with this.

In many people's minds the word "sausage" is just naturally followed bythe words "buckwheat cakes." Is there sanction for this? From the foodtable we learn that sausage has a fair percentage of protein, almost nocarbohydrates, and is almost half fat. Buckwheat cakes have in them,beside buckwheat flour, a little milk and often some wheat flour orcorn meal. This table will, perhaps, represent the matter better thanan explanation.

_Protein._ _Fat._ _Carbohydrates._ Sausage 13.0 44.2 1.1

Buckwheat flour 6.4 1.2 77.9 Milk 3.3 4.0 5.0

The table says to the eye, too much fat. One cannot remedy the defectby increasing the protein and carbohydrates to match the fat, for weshould then have as much food at one meal as we should need for three.The real remedy is to balance this meal with others during the day inwhich the percentage of fat is very low. Another remedy is to servemeals with a large percentage of fat on very cold days; in that casethe weather will help to balance the excess of heat production.

Pursuing this matter of tradition, why are peas served with lamb,and why is pork so often accompanied with "greens" of some sort? The

percentage of protein in lamb is low enough to allow, perhaps require,some supplement from the vegetables. The excess of fat in pork isoffset by the excess of water in greens, and also by certain medicinalqualities they possess which are represented in the percentage of"Ash." One might almost say that the combination known as "hog's jowland turnip greens" is providential. I am sure it has saved bodilysuffering and even lives in certain pig-raising localities.

One can see from looking thoughtfully at this food table that thedinner at which we have lamb, veal, poultry, or fish is the occasionupon which to have a substantial vegetable, such as macaroni, limabeans, parsnips or sweet potatoes, or an especially substantial dessertsuch as a boiled pudding or a pie. It is also evident that when we havebeef, mutton or pork it is healthful to combine them with vegetableslike spinach, cabbage, lettuce, tomatoes and turnips, which contain alarge percentage of water. The dessert for such occasions may well be ajelly or fruit in some form--something light and cool.

The day on which we have roast pork is not the occasion to have appledumpling or any dessert with a percentage of fat; the meal at which weserve beef steak and mushrooms is not the one to complete with mincepie, for we should then have more protein than we should know what todo with. On the contrary, the day on which the main dish at dinner ismade from yesterday's meat, or is fish, is not the time for a watery ora fluffy dessert, unless we are purposely planning a day of abstinence.

If it happens that the family diet includes little meat, care mustbe taken that protein is supplied from other sources, otherwise weshall be running an engine at full speed in a building which is never

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decently repaired and which will one day fall round our ears.

There are several questions which frequently arise in the mind ofa person who begins to study food values. One is, why are articlesincluded in the menu of almost every meal which have almost no valueas nourishment? In many cases such articles are appetizing andrefreshing; such are lettuce, celery, muskmelons, cucumbers and many

soups and desserts. They also contain much water, of which the body hasgreat and constant need. They also give bulk to our food, which is anecessity because some of the processes of digestion do not begin untilthe organs to which they belong are expanded.

A housewife who is bewildered or disheartened will sometimes ask whywe cannot take our food in capsules, or why an ideal dietary cannot bemade and used over and over again. She will not be the first person whohas thought of these expedients, but it has been fairly well provedthat highly condensed food, as also "predigested" foods, not only lackthis element of bulk of which we have been speaking, but have an evenworse defect. They give us something for nothing, which is always bad

for us. That is, they furnish us with nourishment without requiring anyeffort to speak of from the digestive organs. As a result the digestiveorgans grow flabby and useless from having nothing to do. A child inschool who is never given anything difficult to do grows flabby in mindand character and soon _can't_ do anything difficult; so it is with adigestion.

The objection to the use of an ideal dietary is, in the first place,that such a dietary has not been discovered. People claim to havediscovered it, but that is different from really doing so. But thechief objection to the use of such a thing is that the body requires avariety of food, that a variety of food has been provided for it on theearth and that the part of us which is not body will not stand eating

the same thing every day or even every week. Have you ever lived ina boarding house or in an institution where there was an invariableweek's menu. It is a mechanical contrivance which soon stirs uprebellion, and rightly.

Probably a word more needs to be said on this subject of variety, forit is a saving grace in menu making. If one can give one's household_real_ variety of food, not merely that which is made by differentmethods of serving and cooking, but that which is actually a differencein constituents, mistakes in selection will then never get very long orthoroughly established. If one cannot be right all the time, by meansof variety one can be fairly sure of being right some of the time.Variety is also made necessary by changes in season, in occupation, instate of health, and I think I may add without making a loop-hole forpampering people unduly, that it is made necessary at times by changeof mood.

A trivial thing comes to my mind which none the less illustrates whatI am trying to say about variety. So often I have seen a woman, whom Ilike to be with, a woman who has many, many things to do, take a fewmoments to make the last bit of her cookie-dough into an elephant ora rabbit of extraordinary figure. The cheering effect of this animalupon the boy who comes in from school very tired and perhaps cross ordiscouraged, is delightful to see. I repent that I called it a trivialthing, for this puffy, blunt-legged animal is to the child pleasant

food, an amusing sight and the assurance that some one has thoughtgladly of him during the long school hours.

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Variety in menus gives to the grown-up mind the same pleasurablefeelings which the cookie elephant gives to the mind of the child, withthis practical addition, that such feelings of pleasure also quickenthe appetite and the energy and digestive powers of the body, thusenabling it to profit more by the nourishment varied foods convey.


Making a wise menu does not by any means produce a meal. It is a firststep in the process, the next is to buy the food which is required bythe menu.

Many women like to shop, and even more like to have it thought thatthey know how to shop. For some unknown reason shopping for fooddoes not usually excite the same interest nor is it so coveted anaccomplishment. I wonder if it seems less interesting because thethings shopped for are not "to keep." If this is the reason, one hasbut to remind oneself that they are "to keep," only they must first be

transmuted into the flesh and bones, work and laughter of the family.

A large city market is a "sight" in the same sense that a museum oran aquarium or a menagerie is. It is also to some extent a "sight" inthe way that an art gallery is. I would like to give as a reward togood housekeepers a visit to the market in Venice. It is spread inheaps and piles of colour on gray stones, and shaded with gay awnings.Women wearing fringed shawls and high heels and high combs go to it ingondolas, and the market-stuffs are brought to it in boats which glideup to the steps through thousand-coloured ripples.

Often, however, marketing is done in ugly little shops instead of inone big market. But though small shops are not so spectacular, they are

often easier to market in, and the customer usually receives an amountof personal attention which is useful if one has many things to learn.

One of the best reasons for going to a market or to provision shopsevery day or two is that there is so much to be learned there. Anincidental reason is that going to market takes the housewife out ofdoors more often than she might otherwise go. Another reason for goingis that it helps in making varied menus; one sees things which wouldnever have been thought of at home. The housewife who goes to marketcan also take advantage of special prices.

Wise marketing, like wise shopping, requires of us two moral qualities,judgment and self-restraint. One must ask oneself and answer wisely andtruly:

Is this what I want?

Is its price reasonable for me to pay?

Is it good of its kind?

Is it in good condition?

Is it a suitable size or quantity?

If any of it is left to-day will it fit into my plans for to-morrow?

Is this what I want? That is, is it what I have reasonably planned to

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get or just something which momentarily appeals to me. On the otherhand, is it perhaps better for my purpose than the thing I had plannedto have?

"Reasonable," used in regard to a price, has two interpretations, andthe housewife is concerned with both. She must consider whether theprice of an article is "within her means" as people say, that is,

whether she can buy this thing which she wants without sacrificingsomething equally or more important. She must also consider whether theprice is a reasonable value for the nourishment and enjoyment which itrepresents and not a fictitious price caused by unseasonableness or anunusual demand.

Is it good of its kind? And is it in good condition? Are questionswhich may well be considered together. We can only learn to answerthem by experiment and experience. Especially is this true in regardto meat. One cannot easily recognize the different pieces fromanother person's description, and it is often difficult to do so frompictures. Even the names of the pieces differ considerably in different

localities, and a knowledge of the quality of meat is impossible toobtain except from actual experience. The best and easiest way tolearn about meat is from a good butcher. Three or four minutes of histime appropriated by you every time that you go to his shop will makeyou into a skilful marketer. Do not hesitate to ask him questions norbe afraid of betraying your ignorance. For whether you know much orlittle, it is well to put a good deal of responsibility upon him inselecting meat, then if it is not satisfactory he can fairly be takento task, but if you do the choosing without his help, a mistake is yourown fault.

If the housewife is not sure of the names given to pieces of meat inthe locality in which she is marketing, or not very sure of such names

anywhere, she may easily explain her wishes by designating what shemeans to do with a piece of meat, as, "a piece of veal for roasting,""about a pound and a half of lamb for stewing," "a piece of beef forsoup," and the like phrases.

Her receipt book will probably give her pictures and the names ofpieces of meat, or she may again apply to her paternal government forFarmers' Bulletin No. 34: "Meats: Composition and Cooking," in whichshe will find placid animals divided into numbered sections, andconsiderable explanation of ways in which these sections may be used.

Because the names of pieces of meat and the methods of cutting themvary considerably, I shall give but a brief and general table here.This diagram of a side of beef will give some idea of the position ofthe several pieces.


1. Hind Shank 2. Lower Round 3. Round 4. Aitch Bone 5. Rump 6. Loin 7. Flank

8. Navel 9. Plate 10. Ribs

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11. Brisket 12. Cross Ribs 13. Chuck 14. Neck 15. Shoulder 16. Fore Shank]

_Beef._--The neck, shin or shank and navel are usually used for soupstock.

A variety of pieces known by a variety of names, such as cross ribs,plate or Rattel rand, brisket, shoulder, rump, thick flank, aitch boneand the butt or vein, are used for boiling, braising, stewing, cornedbeef, pot roasts and spiced beef.

The upper round, occasionally called the buttock, is used for roundsteaks.

The lower round is good for beef-tea, hamburg-steak, meat pies and anypurpose for which good chopped beef is needed.

The chuck ribs are those nearest the neck; they are frequently usedfor stews, chuck steaks and ragout. Sometimes the ribs are removed andthe meat rolled and tied; this makes a tender and well-flavoured roast.

The prime ribs, of which some people say there are five and others six,are used for prime roasts. They are divided into first, second andthird cuts; the last is considered least desirable.

From the part of the animal known as the loin are cut porterhouse,sirloin and short steaks; from this part also comes the tenderloin,

sometimes called the fillet.

The parts of the loin and the prime ribs are the most expensive andare considered the most desirable parts of the animal. The housekeeperwhose purse will not permit her to buy them may comfort herself,though, with the fact that they contain no more nourishment than someless popular pieces.

Other meats are divided into somewhat fewer cuts than beef. The moregeneral divisions are given below.

_Veal._--The loin is used for roasts and chops.

The fillet for roasts and cutlets.

The better parts of the neck and the breast are used for roasting andchops.

The less desirable parts for pies, pot roasts and stews.

The shank, which in veal is known as a "knuckle," is used for soup andbroths.

_Mutton or lamb._--The leg is used for roasting or boiling.

The shoulder for baking and roasting.

The loin for chops and roasts.

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The ribs, which are often called the "rack," are used chiefly for chops.

The breast may be roasted, baked or stewed.

_Pork._--Hams and shoulders, the back and front legs of the animal, areeaten either smoked or fresh.

The loin, ribs and sparerib are used for roasts, chops, stews and bakeddishes.

Pieces used for salt pork and bacon are cut from the almost clear fatof the back and sides.

Almost all parts of the pig are used for food, but as they are usuallyknown by names which indicate what they are, they give the housewifelittle trouble in remembering them.

The use of your eye, sometimes of your hand, is required in judging the

condition of the food you are buying.

Meat which is without fat is probably tough. Fat of beef should be paleyellow and dry, the lean, bright red and firm. Mutton, veal and porkshould have pure white fat, the lean of mutton should be bright red,of veal, pink, of pork, a somewhat more delicate pink.

Chickens should have soft, moist, yellow feet, smooth, thick legs, andtender skin. The end of the breastbone should be pliable. Plump, verybright yellow chickens are fat and are better for stews or pot-pie thanfor roasting.

Turkeys should have smooth, black legs and white, plump breasts. If the

flesh of their legs is purplish they are probably old.

Geese and ducks should have soft feet, hard breasts and pinkish beaks.

Fish in good condition have bright eyes and scales, stiff fins andflesh so hard and firm that it will not retain the mark if pressed witha finger.

It is not a difficult matter to tell whether fruit and vegetables arefresh and good. When such things are wilted, withered, bruised orlacking in firmness, they are not good for food unless they are merelywilted as lettuce and asparagus sometimes are on a hot day, or whenthey have been carried through the sun.

I know of no way of judging butter except by tasting it. There islittle also by which to judge eggs; their shells should not be shiny orvery smooth and they should feel both light and heavy--if you can tellwhat I mean by that.

The last two questions on the marketing list are also usuallyconsidered together. Both are really questions concerning quantity.

Food so often comes in quantities too large for one meal that it isusually better to make menus for two days at one time and then revisethe second day's menu when the second day comes.

Under these questions of quantity comes a class of articles a littledifferent from those which we have just been mentioning: articles like

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sugar, flour, salt, coffee, tea and the like, which are bought inbulk. In what quantity it is wise to buy such things depends upon thesize of the household, the place where these articles may be kept, thedistance from the place where the supply can be renewed, the income ofthe family and whether the housewife or a reliable servant dispensesthem for use. I think it is pretty generally admitted that householdswhich are living on small means do better to buy food supplies in small

quantities. The advantages of doing this are, that if the commodity isinjured in any way, the loss is small; that no large outlay of money isrequired at any one time; that the smallness of the quantity possessedis a continual guard against its lavish use. These advantages usuallyamply offset the fact that it is a little cheaper and a little morecomfortable to buy in large quantities.

Because it is easier, housewives sometimes fall into the way of dealingat just one or two shops. This is a good thing to do usually, a poorone to do invariably. To go occasionally to other shops gives one thechance to find better things and pleasanter conditions; it also makesyour regular shopkeeper more anxious to please if he knows you go

elsewhere when you are not pleased. An advantage in cities of goinghere and there, is that one can often take advantage of a differencein prices in different localities. This must be done, of course, withjudgment; otherwise one makes oneself a fit subject for one of thosejokes about women who save two cents on a head of lettuce and spend tenin carfare going to get it.

Women who take the same sort of trouble about marketing as they doabout buying their clothes usually succeed well with it. It is reallynot a difficult form of shopping and interest in it grows as onelearns.



OUR Brother the Sun gets up every morning to cook, cooks all day, andseems to enjoy cooking. The cooking processes which we engage in aremany of them imitations of his. When we use water and heat to softenand break up starch cells, it is only a copy of the process by whichthe sun makes the dry starch laid up in a seed in the damp earth intofood for the first little leaves of a plant. Long before we everthought of cooking, the sun was changing starch into sugar by heatingapples and pears and peaches through and through every day. One mighteven venture to say that he had warmed milk for all the mammal babiesever since the first one was born. Every once in a while, peopleappear who try to persuade us to "go back to nature" and eat our fooduncooked, not realizing that they are asking us, not to go back tonature, but to our own first ignorance of what nature is doing.

[Illustration: Photograph by Helen W. Cooke


The dictionary says that "to cook" is "to prepare food by subjectingit to heat"; a brief and simple definition including some thousands ofprocesses ranging from the universal cooking done by the sun to that

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performed by an accomplished French chef.

The object of cooking is to make food more digestible and moreattractive. For changes occur in food when it is subjected to heatwhich make it more easily used by the body and which make it moreagreeable in flavour--more "appetizing." An incidental but importantbenefit from cooking is that great heat kills the animal organisms

which food sometimes contains.


The most usual processes of cooking are broiling, boiling, stewing,braising, frying, roasting and baking.

_Broiling._--Food is broiled by being held close to a fire of glowingred coals. The utensil needed for doing this is a wire broiler, whichshould be greased before the meat is laid in it, preferably with abit of fat from the meat. In broiling, the chief object is to keep

the juices of the meat from running out. For this reason the meat islaid close over the red coals for about ten seconds, then turned withthe other side to the coals that both may be seared almost at once.Afterward it is turned frequently to prevent burning. Broiled meat isnot seasoned until it is done because salt draws out its juices. Careis also taken not to cut or pierce the meat while it is cooking.

Steaks and chops are almost always broiled; fish, chicken and oystersare frequently cooked in this way.

Broiling may be done in a frying pan heated intensely hot, and greasedas the wires of the broiler were with a bit of fat from the meat--atiny bit. The meat is laid in the pan, first on one side for a few

seconds, then on the other. It is turned, as when broiling over thecoals, often enough to keep it from burning.

Articles of food which are thin need a hotter fire, or to be laidnearer the fire than thicker ones. This assures that the time requiredto brown the outside will be too brief to dry the article through andthrough.

A thick piece of meat will not cook through to the middle for some timeand should therefore be exposed to a slower fire that the outside maynot be hard before the inside is cooked. These principles apply alsoto the roasting and baking of thick and thin articles of food.

_Boiling._--As only liquids can boil, we mean when we say we boilpotatoes, that we cook them in boiling water. When water is heated,tiny bubbles of steam rise in it, which at first break before theyreach the surface; this is "simmering." As the heat increases, thebubbles rise more quickly and higher, and break at the surface; thisis boiling. Water boils at 212° F., and, though its motion may beincreased by heat to a "gallop," it gets no hotter, for the steamescapes when the little bubbles burst. Liquids which have a greaterdensity than water, such as salt water, syrup, grease and oil, do notboil until they have reached a higher temperature than 212°. Milk boilsat a lower temperature than water. The reason it "boils over" so easilyis that what one might call the texture of the milk bubbles which

enclose the steam is less delicate than that of the water bubbles,therefore instead of breaking when they come to the surface, they pileup one upon another.

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Boiling water hardens and toughens some of the protein substances infood, but softens and makes digestible most of the substances includedunder the head of carbohydrates.

Cold water softens and dissolves into itself some of the proteinsubstances, and also soaks out the nourishing qualities of


These facts are extremely useful in deciding upon the best method ofboiling food. For instance, if we have a piece of meat or fish whichwe wish to boil and serve whole, it should be put into water which isalready boiling; this hardens the outside sufficiently to keep thejuices inside. This hardening is accomplished in about eight or tenminutes; at the end of that time, the temperature of the water shouldbe allowed to fall a little below the boiling point that the insideof the article may be cooked without being hardened. Water into whichfish is put should be just boiling, not rapidly boiling, as the motionsometimes breaks the fish into pieces.

If we wish to make soup, broth, or beef-tea, we cut meat into smallpieces and put it into cold water, which is then gradually brought toa high temperature. The cold water dissolves the substances of themeat, which it has a better opportunity of doing from many small piecesthan from one large one, and gradually becomes highly and agreeablyflavoured. Meanwhile, the meat becomes more and more tasteless andcolourless and is, at last, fit only to be thrown away.

Salt is put into the water in which meat is boiled. In cold water ithelps to draw out the juices of the meat. In boiling water it drawsthem out a little, but the heat of the water converts them into a thinalbuminous coating for the meat which assists in keeping in the juices.

Nearly all vegetables should be put into boiling water instead of beingput on the fire in cold and allowed to come to the boiling point. Thisis in order that the changes which are made in the cells and fibres maybe made at once, before dissolvable substances like starch and sugarare soaked out into the water which is to be thrown away. Some wateryvegetables, such as tomatoes and spinach need extremely little water,sometimes no more than adheres to them after they have been washed.These things are really stewed, not boiled. White potatoes should beboiled gently, that the outsides may not break and fall off as theysoften.

In most cases, the boiling water in which vegetables are put shouldbe salted, in the proportion of a tablespoonful of salt to two quartsof water. This not only seasons them but makes the temperature ofthe water somewhat greater. There are some exceptions to this,however; green corn is one of them; salt yellows and toughens it. Manyauthorities will tell you not to salt peas until they are nearlycooked.

As soon as vegetables are tender they should be drained. Potatoes,whether boiled or baked, should not be covered after they are drainedor taken from the oven. They should dry in the air, not soak in theirown steam.

_Stewing._--Stewing resembles boiling. It is boiling done in the juicesof the article cooked increased with a little water. As we wish some ofthe juices to flow out, we put food to be stewed into cold water. When

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it has been brought gradually to the boiling point, the heat shouldthen be lowered to the simmering point and the food allowed to simmerfor a long while. Stewing is a slow method of cooking but it makesdigestible and appetizing meat and coarse vegetables which otherwisewould be hard fare. To food which is neither coarse nor tough, itimparts a particularly delectable flavour. Stewed mushrooms are a goodexample of this.

_Braising._--Braising is rather like stewing done in the oven. Atightly covered pan or earthenware dish is required for it and a "slow"oven. The meat is shut in the pan with seasonings and a little water,and cooked long and slowly in the oven.

Braising is sometimes done in a closely covered dish set in amoderately heated place on the top of the stove.

_Frying._--Frying is done in two ways, by immersing the article to befried in deep, hot fat and also by laying it first on one side thenon the other in a pan in which there is a little hot fat. This latter

method is often called sautéing.

The object of frying is quickly to form a crisp, brown crust round theoyster, croquette, doughnut or whatever is being cooked, which will notallow the flavour and constituents of the food to escape into the fat,nor the fat to penetrate into the food. Provided this is accomplished,frying is an entirely defensible mode of cooking, but imperfectly doneit is a particularly unwholesome method.

The temperature of the fat is the point for chief concern. If it ismuch below 380°, it will soak into the articles put into it, and theresult will be food which is unpleasant to look at and hurtful to eat.If the temperature of the fat is much above 380°, food put into it will

become almost instantly dark and hard.

Fat at the right temperature for frying is perfectly still and smokes avery little. An inch cube of bread dropped into it will become brown inone minute.

Articles which are to be fried should be as dry as possible becausewater lowers the temperature of the fat and makes it sputter. Theyshould also not be very cold as this likewise cools the fat.

Lard, suet, drippings, olive oil and combinations of these things areused for frying because they can be raised to a very high temperature.We cannot fry in water because it can never be made hot enough to crispanything. Fried articles must be carefully drained, it is well if theycan be laid on a paper or a netting for this purpose.

_Roasting._--Roasting, strictly speaking, is now rarely done. It isthe method of cooking joints of meat by hanging them before an openfire. Roasting done in the oven is really a form of baking. The processrequires a very hot oven that the outside of the meat may be incrustedwith melted fat and albumen which will keep the juices inside. Meatfor roasting is first rubbed with flour and salt; the salt starts thejuices, the flour combines with them and helps in the incrusting justmentioned. It is well to put a few spoonfuls of drippings or some fatfrom the meat into the pan, for this, as we have noted, becomes hotter

than water. If the piece of meat is very large, or requires thoroughcooking as in the case of pork and veal, water may be put in the panas soon as the outside is incrusted. This will reduce the temperature

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and make the roasting slower and more thorough. It is most satisfactoryto have a rack in the roasting pan, that the meat may stand over, notin, the water.

Roasting meat must be often "basted," that is, spoonfuls of the hot fator water in the pan must be poured over the meat now and again to keepthe outside from hardening and charring. The occasional opening of the

oven door for this purpose also lets fresh air into the oven and thusimproves the flavour of the meat.

_Baking._--Because we have come to use the word which meant cookingmeat before the fire for cooking it in the oven, we more usually applythe word baking to the cooking of bread, cake, vegetables, puddings andthe many other things which we cook by shutting them up in the dry heatof the oven.

None of these articles require as high a temperature as meat. Youcannot bear to put your hand into an oven which is ready for a roastof meat; in an oven ready for bread you can hold your hand a minute or

two. The reason for this is that the juices and steam are to be keptinside meat, but the gases in bread are to be let out, the crust mustnot therefore harden at once. One of the things which must be guardedagainst when baking bread in a gas range is the danger of having theoven so hot at first that a hard crust is formed on the bread beforethe crumb is sufficiently baked.

It is not always possible to regulate the heat of the oven withdampers. Should this be the case and the oven is too hot at the top,lay a paper or a pie-plate over the article which is baking. If it istoo hot on the bottom set the pan containing the food on an oven rackor on an inverted pie-plate. While bread or cake are baking the ovendoor should only be opened when necessary and then quickly closed, for

cold air sometimes ruins such things.

Things which are merely to be browned are set on a grate near the topof the oven. Things large or thick, which are to be baked throughslowly are set on the bottom of the oven. Some substances dry a gooddeal during the process of baking; such are breads, cakes and puddings.The pans or dishes for such articles must be greased. Tins for cakeswhich require long baking are often lined with stiff greased paper, asthis makes it more certain that the cake will not stick to the pan.

A housewife should have a standard cook book to refer to for thedetails of cooking. Besides this, it is well for her to gather frombooks and magazines serviceable receipts and suggestions abouthousehold matters. These may be copied into an indexed blank book,though I believe something in the nature of a card catalogue would bebetter for the purpose.


Food usually needs some preparation for the processes of cooking.Though it requires nothing more, it is almost invariably first washedin clean, fresh water.

_Meat._--Fresh meat should be rinsed quickly in cold water. Meat which

has been smoked or salted often needs scrubbing with a brush as wellas rinsing, and salt meat frequently requires to be soaked for severalhours.

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_Poultry._--Poultry is usually sent to the market killed and plucked,and is sometimes "drawn" before it is sent from the market to thebuyer. In country places it is often brought to the housewife alive andthough this has inconveniences it has also the great advantage that thepoultry can then be drawn immediately after it is killed, which seemsthe more clean and more reasonable method.

To the housewife who finds herself in the predicament of having a livechicken when she needs a dead one, I can say from experience thatbeheading is the least offensive method for the unskilled to employ.Use a sharp axe or hatchet and strike hard. Do not be distressed bythe convulsive movements which follow, they do not indicate suffering.They happen because the intense throbbing thing, we call life cannot besnuffed out like a candle. Even in a small creature it is a tremendousrush and swirl which cannot be stopped on the instant. This is a pieceof work which it is not necessary for a housekeeper to learn to do; sheneed only know that she can do it if she must. I have found in my ownhousekeeping that it is more economical to hire my neighbour, black

Caroline to kill the chickens, because she can walk out of the kitchendoor with two chickens in her hand, kill them, and come back againwithout interrupting the camp-meeting hymn she is singing and I amafraid I must admit that I cannot do the same thing without shiveringand tears.

A few minutes after the poultry is killed it should be plucked. Somepeople scald it to make the feathers come out more easily; others, onreasonable grounds, heartily disapprove of this performance and insiston "dry picking." Hold the fowl by the feet and pull the feathersout toward the head, unless the skin proves to be very tender; inthat case pull the other way. Carefully remove all the little blackpin-feathers. Put a screw of paper on the stove, light it and singe

the chicken quickly to remove hairs and down. If the head has notpreviously been removed, cut it off about an inch from the body. Justbelow where the neck and body join you will feel through the skin arough movable lump. This is the crop and should be removed by looseningthe skin from the neck and drawing up the crop between the two. Cutit off close to the body. Cut off the legs at the joint and cut out alittle oil bag which you will find on top of the tail.

When chickens are split down the back for broiling, or cut into piecesfor fricasseeing or frying, it is a simple matter to remove theinternal organs. If, however, they must be drawn for roasting, it takessome skill to do it. It is an assistance to remember that the organslie more or less bound together in the cavity of the body, somewhatas the seeds lie in the cavity of a cantaloupe. The organs should bedisordered as little as possible in the removal, as some of them,notably the gall-bag of the liver, contain substances which affect thetaste of the meat if they touch it. As the chicken lies breast up, makea short crosswise slit in it a little distance from the tail. Put oneor two fingers into this opening keeping them close to the walls ofthe cavity, and gently loosen the organs, gradually working them out atthe slit. Some strength is needed for this, but it should be appliedgently.

Be sure that all the organs are removed, then wash the fowl under thefaucet or in a pan of cold water. Wipe it dry with a clean cloth. The

washing should be done with especial thoroughness if the fowl hasremained long undrawn.

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Carefully separate the heart, liver and gizzard from the other organs.Cut the veins from the heart. Trim the fat from the gizzard, cut a slitin the thick part and draw the slit open; the inner lining must beremoved, unbroken if possible. Wash these giblets carefully, put themat once on the fire in cold water and simmer until tender.

_Eggs._--Eggs should be washed when they are brought into the house;

the shells are then clean to be used for clearing coffee or soup.

When preparing eggs for cooking, do not break them one after anotherinto the bowl in which they are to be beaten, but put each one into acup and them slip it into the bowl. If this precaution is not taken, anegg unfit for use may be dropped into a bowl with several fresh onesand all will be wasted.

Some people separate the white of an egg from the yolk by cracking asmall piece from one end and pouring out the white, leaving the yolkin the shell until last; others break the egg through the middle bystriking it on the edge of the cup and pass the yolk back and forth

from one half-shell to the other until all the white has run into thecup. Whatever method is used, care must be taken that no yolk runsinto the white as this prevents the white from frothing. It is on thisaccount that the whites and yolks are beaten separately when we wanteggs especially frothy. Eggs also froth better when they are very cold.

They are beaten before they are used because we sometimes wish to putair into a mixture by this means.

_Fish._--Large fish are usually prepared and sold in pieces by the fishdealer. Small fish are usually left whole and should be cleaned as soonas possible after they are bought. First remove the scales by scrapingthem toward the head with the back of a knife. Hold the knife flat

that it may slip under the scales. Have a pan of cold water at hand inwhich to rinse the knife frequently. Cut off the head just below thegills. Slit the body at the thinner edge and remove the entrails. Runthe point of the knife along the backbone to remove the blood whichlies there. Cut off the tail last, as it is a convenient handle. Shadcontaining roe must be slit very carefully, that the roe may not becut or broken. Fish which are to be served with heads and tails on areslit from the gills half way down the body and the entrails removed asbefore described.

After fish are cleaned, wash them carefully in cold water--some peopleprefer to use salted water--then salt inside and out and lay them on aplate in a cool place--not the refrigerator--until it is time to cookthem. Wash off the salt and season them again before cooking.

If a piece of fish which is to be boiled is wrapped in a thin cloth themotion of the water will not break it.

_Shell-Fish._--Receipts for cooking oysters or clams which begin, "Openthe oysters"--or "Take two dozen clams from the shells"--are ratheramusing when one remembers what an exaggerated pleasure in retirementthese creatures take. They do not open their shells when one reads areceipt at them.

_Oysters._--When oysters are cooked in their shells heat opens them;

otherwise, some one must open them by hand. A small thin knife withan iron handle is best for this work. The hand in which the oyster isheld should be protected with a heavy glove or mitten. If you can find

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no place where the thin point of the knife can be pushed between theshells, rap the edge of the oyster with the handle of the knife untilsome little crack is made into which the point can be thrust, thengently but firmly work the shells apart. Put the oysters into a bowl.The opening should be as cleanly a performance as possible, for theoysters are the better for not being washed. Instead of washing them,lift them one or two at a time from one bowl to another, looking them

over carefully for any bits of shell. It is better to wash them ifthey have not been opened in the house. If oysters are to be cooked orserved in their shells, the shells must be thoroughly scrubbed.

_Clams._--Clams, whether thin shell, or hard shell, should be scrubbed,rinsed, and laid in a pot with not more than a half-cupful of water.Not more, because the juice from the clams should be diluted as littleas possible. Cover the pot closely. As soon as the shells open theclams are cooked. When hard shell clams are taken from the shells, clipoff with scissors the hard rim from each one. The clam juice should besaved and put aside to settle, the clear liquor can then be poured off.It is used to some extent in nearly all dishes made from clams.

If an oyster or a clam has its shells open, pick it up in your hand.If it closes it is all right, if it remains open throw it away for itis dead. Only death prevents these creatures from shutting their doors.

_Scallops._--Scallops as we see them on the table or as they comeprepared from the market, are really the muscles of the scallop whichhold its shells together. Whole scallops are boiled and the muscleremoved when the shells open.

_Lobsters._--Lobsters are sometimes bought alive, sometimes alreadyboiled. They are not exactly green or brown or blue when alive, but arebright red when cooked. A boiled lobster is opened by splitting the

body and tail lengthwise and cracking the claws. The firm white and redmeat and a bit called the "coral" are the parts to be eaten. The head,a sand-pouch near the throat, the stomach and intestines and the tough,feathery gills on the under side of the body must not be used.

_Crabs._--Hard shell crabs are cooked by plunging them into saltedboiling water for fifteen or twenty minutes. They change in colour aslobsters do. If you wish to open them, first remove the little flapwhich folds down on the under shell, then, placing your thumbs at theplace where the flap was fastened on, draw the upper and lower shellsapart. A little, grayish sand pocket sometimes adheres to one shell,sometimes to the other. This and the gray, spongy fingers attached tothe lower shell should be removed and thrown away.

Before soft shell crabs are cooked, the sand-pocket and spongysubstances under the edges of the shell should be removed. The uppershell is soft enough to be turned back for this purpose.

_Vegetables._--Almost without exception, vegetables are prepared forcooking by being washed and laid in cold water to be freshened. Somekinds require no other preparation; others must be also scraped orpeeled or shelled or husked.

Those vegetables which require no preparation for cooking exceptwashing and freshening are: asparagus, beets, cabbage, cauliflower,

spinach and sweet potatoes.

Cress, celery, endive, lettuce and radishes require this same

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preparation, but are not usually cooked.

One must be careful not to break the skins of beets and not to cuttheir tops too close, that the juices may not flow out and leave thebeet colourless and tasteless.

Salt should be put in the water in which cabbage and cauliflower are

freshened and the cabbage heads should be divided into quarters thatthe small insects which these vegetables are apt to contain may bedriven out.

The washing of spinach requires especial care. It is well to use twopans that the spinach may be lifted back and forth from one to theother and the sand left in the bottom of the pans. A little salt shouldbe put into one of the waters to expel insects.

Vegetables which require also to be scraped are, carrots, oyster plant,parsnips and new potatoes.

Vegetables which require to be peeled as well as to be washed andfreshened are: cucumbers, egg plant, mushrooms, onions, white potatoes,squash, turnips and tomatoes.

Egg plant is sliced, but the slices are not always peeled. It isfreshened in salted water.

Cucumbers and tomatoes are laid in water before they are peeled insteadof afterward. Thick pieces should be cut from the ends and sides ofcucumbers as the skin contains unwholesome juices.

Onions are less unpleasant to peel if held under water during theprocess.

Vegetables which also require shelling or husking are: lima beans,green peas and green corn.

Corn silk may easily be removed from the ears with a brush.

_Dried_ beans and peas require many hours of soaking to make them readyto be cooked.

String beans are prepared by a process peculiar to themselves. Somepeople cut a thin strip from each side of the pod; others cut thepointed end toward one side, the stem end toward the other and drawaway the strings with the cut pieces. The point of importance is to getrid of the strings absolutely.

Rice is prepared by thorough washing. A good way to accomplish this isto put the rice in a coarse strainer and lower it into a pan of water.Lift and stir the rice, then raise the strainer from the pan, changethe water and repeat the washing process. Continue to repeat this untilthe water remains clear.

_Fruit and Berries._--Fruit should be washed and wiped dry when it isbrought from the market. It is then ready for use in any way that maybe desired. Thick skinned fruits such as pears and apples are peeledbefore they are cooked. Dried fruit is usually soaked before it is


It is desirable that berries which come from the market or store should

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be washed. This can best be accomplished by putting them in a coarsesieve or colander and holding them under a gently running faucet. Itis a good thing to spread them on a clean paper or cloth to dry. Whenberries are picked in the garden, one may have the luxury of eatingthem unwashed.

_Mixtures._--There are certain articles of food, different and

differently prepared from any hitherto mentioned, which might becalled as a class, mixtures. They are dishes made by mixing severalfood substances together, and are called bread, cake, pudding, pastry,sauces and many other names.

_Bread._--Of these mixtures bread is the most important and the mostdifficult to make. Receipts for bread are the simplest ones we have,yet a detailed description of bread-making might easily fill a book. Toread such a description for the first time would very probably shock acareful housewife. She has learned to protect her stores of food fromany processes of fermentation; she regards the growth of fungus in thecellar or of mould on the back of the refrigerator as an indication of

unhealthful dampness, perhaps of dirt; she probably has some terrorof germs and bacteria. Is it not rather shocking then, to learn that,without fermentation, fungus and bacteria, she could not make thesweet, clean bread which she bakes every two or three days. When shehas thought out these puzzling facts, she will find that each one ofher bakings is a sermon from the text that all things work together forgood if one knows the secret of their use.

Yeast is a form of bacteria--a germ--a microscopic fungus which floatsabout in the air. I find that a Government Report on the subject callsthis "wild yeast." One cannot resist following out the idea thussuggested, and saying that this wild species may be caught by thehousewife in mixtures of warm hops, potato and flour and "domesticated"

for use in bread making.

The little yeast plants multiply quickly when they find something whichthey like to feed upon, and it happens that they like a mixture offlour and water which is neither very hot nor very cold. Therefore,when we put yeast into dough the little plants feed and multiplyand in doing so change the character of the dough. They cause it toferment, just as grape or apple juice ferments. When the carbohydratesubstances in the flour, that is, the starches and sugars, ferment theychange, and in the change form alcohol and carbon dioxide. When thisperformance is at its height, we put the dough into the oven, the yeastplant is killed by the heat and a stop thus put to its activities.Another result of putting the bread into the oven is that the bubblesof gas formed by fermentation expand with the heat. The gas escapes,but not before the walls of the bubbles have been hardened sufficientlyby heat to make the bread full of tiny holes--"porous" we call it, and"light."

The following receipt is a usual one for a small batch of bread:

2 quarts of flour. 1 tablespoonful of salt. 1 " " sugar. 1 " " lard. 1 half cake of yeast soaked in a cup of milk.

2 cups of milk or water.

The sugar and the lard are not necessary to bread making but are

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frequently used; the lard because it makes bread tender and moist, thesugar to take the place of some of the sugar in the flour which is usedup in fermentation.

Without the other four ingredients, flour, salt, "wetting" and yeast,we could not have bread.

The yeast is either a little compressed cake of useful bacteria, or itis a liquid in which this bacteria has congregated.

The flour is a nourishing but unattractive substance which we wish theyeast plant to change into spongy, pleasant-flavoured, digestible food.

The salt assists in making the pleasant flavour and also helps toprevent fermentation from going beyond the desired point. Unless thefermentation of bread stops at the right time, changes occur in thedough like those which take place in milk when it sours, and in ciderwhen it turns to vinegar.

Milk or water are necessary to give the flour the moist consistencywhich is agreeable to the growth of yeast plants. It is sometimesnecessary to heat the "wetting" a little, for the temperature of thedough to be favourable to the activity of the yeast must be not lessthan 70° F. nor more than 90° F.

Directions for mixing bread frequently tell you to "set a sponge."This is done by mixing all the ingredients except the flour, and thenstirring into them just enough flour to make a thick batter. Thismixture is set in a temperature between 70° and 90° and allowed toferment. The "sponge" is a more watery mixture than dough and in itthe yeast has an especially easy opportunity to develop. The settingof a sponge also serves as a test of the yeast. If the yeast does

not greatly increase the quantity of the sponge and make it full ofbubbles, it will not be strong enough to affect the stiffer dough.

When the sponge has increased to about twice its size in the beginning,enough flour is stirred in to make kneading possible. The object ofkneading is that the yeast may be distributed through the flour soevenly that its effect upon all parts of the dough will be the same.

After the kneading the bread is "set to rise," that is it is put in acomfortably warm place, out of the way of draughts, and left while theyeast plants multiply and ferment the bread.

When the dough has increased to about twice its original size, it iskneaded a little more, chiefly to break the bigger bubbles which wouldmake holes in the bread. It is then moulded into loaves and rolls andset to rise again, this last because in the moulding it has acquireda little more flour and its sponginess has been somewhat compressed.It is finally baked, as has been said, to stop fermentation andpreserve the porous character of the bread. Baking also forms thepleasant-flavoured crust.

A person of inquiring mind may observe in the table of food valuesgiven in the previous chapter that the nourishing constituents aregreater in quantity in flour than, with a slight exception in fat andash, they are in bread. The natural question will then be, why take

all this trouble to cultivate yeast plants in flour when the resultfurnishes less nourishment than flour? Why not mix flour and waterand bake it? This would be "unleavened bread" which is somewhat like

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crackers, somewhat like macaroni, both of which register higher innourishing constituents than bread. Nevertheless, they do not serveour purpose as well as bread, because they are much more hard todigest and more quickly create distaste. The body must not only havenourishment supplied to it, it must have it supplied in forms which itcan use without serious difficulty. It is quite possible, therefore,to obtain more actual nourishment from digestible, appetizing bread

which contains a smaller per cent. of nutriment, than from a crude andinsipid flour mixture which contains a greater per cent.

_Cake._--There are other methods of making food "light" besides puttingyeast into it. Two of these are commonly used in making cake and fancybreads. Sponge cakes are made light by beating air into the eggs used.Cakes which contain butter, and breads which contain no yeast are madelight with baking powder, which is a mixture of soda and cream oftartar, or with soda and cream of tartar put in separately. Soda is analkali; cream of tarter is an acid. A combination of the two liberatescarbonic acid gas to raise the cake and also counteracts the poisonousproperties of the soda. Three rounded teaspoonfuls of baking powder

produce the same effect as one level teaspoonful of soda and tworounded teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. Therefore, if a receipt callsfor soda and cream of tartar and we have only baking powder, or viceversa, we may use one for the other if we remember this equality.

One frequently finds soda and not cream of tartar called for inreceipts in which sour milk or molasses is required. In such cases theacid in the milk or in the molasses will take the place of that usuallyfurnished by cream of tartar. Soda and cream of tartar, or bakingpowder, should be put into the flour before it is sifted, they are thusthoroughly mixed with it and also sifted.

The ingredients of fancy breads and cake must be mixed in ways which

will not interfere with the means by which they are made light.

It is usually a good plan when mixing muffins, gems, Sally Lunn oranything of the kind which does not require kneading, to put all thedry ingredients together in one bowl, all the wet ones together inanother bowl, then to stir the wet ones into the dry ones and if thereare eggs in the mixture fold in the beaten whites last.

Whites of eggs are nearly always the last thing to be put into anymixture, because if they are moved about more than is necessary to getthem in, much of the air in them will be lost.

The ingredients of cake are usually mixed in the following order:butter and sugar beaten together to a creamy consistency; beaten yolksof eggs; milk or water and flavouring; flour and baking powder; whitesof eggs.

The order for mixing a sponge cake is the same except that some of theingredients mentioned in this list will be omitted.

The reason that flour is put in last, or next to the last, is that itcontains the baking powder or the soda and cream of tartar. When thesesubstances are wet they give off gas which is to make the cake light,therefore they should not be wet until just before the cake is readyfor the oven.

Fruit is put into a cake last of all. It is floured before it is putin to keep the pieces from sticking together, and to keep the moisture

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they contain from injuring the cake.

Because the lightness of cake depends upon bubbles of air or gas whichin the course of time collapse, cake batter should be baked as soon asmixed. That this may be possible, the fire should be put into suitablecondition and the utensils and materials gathered and prepared beforethe mixing begins.

_Pastry._--Pastry mixtures differ from bread or cake mixtures in thatthey are flaky instead of spongy. Things flake when they are composedof layers; the point then is to make pastry by a process which willproduce layers. When a smooth dough has been made of flour, salt andcold water, it is rolled lightly to a thin sheet, tiny pieces of butterare scattered over it and a very little flour sprinkled on it. Thesheet is then doubled, rolled to the former thickness, butter and flourare applied to it as before and it is again doubled. This is repeatedseveral times. When it is finally ready for the oven it is in layersof dough and butter. When the heat of the oven melts the butter andexpands the air between the layers, they separate a little, that is,

they flake.

By means of this theory of pastry one can better understand thedirections given in pastry receipts. For example, the ingredientsmust be kept cold that the butter and dough may not combine duringthe rolling. The pastry must be handled lightly and never pressed orpounded because this would press out the air and crush the layers intoeach other.

The filling of pies sometimes presents difficulties. A very juicyfilling soaks the under crust. One remedy used for this is to bakethe bottom crust before filling the pie; another is to brush it overwith white of egg. The very best way to prevent the under crust of a

pie from being soggy and indigestible is not to have one. Put thefruits into a fairly deep baking-dish and cover it with a flaky topcrust. This is an English method which we should do well to follow. Theresult is more fruit and less crust, and none of that under crust whichwhatever pains you take will more or less relapse into dough.

Juicy pies must not be filled quite full, that they may not boilover in the oven. Openings cut in the crust help to prevent this; aninverted tea cup put into a deep pie is also a preventive. I am toldthat if the top crust is just laid over the pie and not fastened at theedges, the juice of the filling is less apt to run out.


Going into the kitchen to make one dish; or getting a supper for whichmuch of the food has been previously prepared, gives no suggestion ofone of the chief difficulties in getting meals. This difficulty is thesequence of work. Unless thoughtful and orderly arrangements are made,one dish will be done too early, another too late, the cook may findshe is required to perform two pieces of work at once and the lastmoments before the meal will be crowded with more things than canpossibly be done.

The time required to cook different articles of food often furnishes a

sort of schedule for getting the meal. Additional time must be allowed,however, for preparations before cooking and for finishing touchesafter cooking.

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Except when a gas range is used the fire is the first thing to attendto.

The other things to be arranged for naturally fall into three groupswith intervals between in which work may be done which does not have tobe timed.

The first group contains things which take long to cook, such asbaked and boiled meats, oatmeal, some puddings, old vegetables, andvegetables which are cooked slowly like stewed tomatoes. These thingsare prepared and put on the fire as soon as the fire is ready for them.

Between this and the second group is an interval which may be used forpreparing the second group and for setting the table, arranging salad,putting dishes to warm, etc. Sometimes a dessert has to be prepared inthis interval, in that case the food of the second group may have to bemade ready and the table set at the very beginning of things, beforethe fire is looked after.

The second group contains vegetables and desserts which cook in fromthirty to forty-five minutes, soup which is to be warmed, eggs whichare to be boiled hard to accompany vegetables, anything which takes ahalf or three-quarters of an hour to cook or which is needed in theconcluding preparations of the other food.

After this second group is on the fire comes another interval in whichthings may be done which were left over from the other interval and inwhich cold food such as bread, butter and milk may be put on the table.In this time also preparation must be made for the cooking necessaryto the third group. Some of these are, mixing thickening for gravy,shelling hard-boiled eggs for spinach, and collecting on the kitchen

table seasonings, butter and milk for the cooked vegetables and meat.

The third group contains things which must be done a very brief timebefore the meal. These are broiling meat, preparing cooked vegetablesfor the table, making sauces and gravy, putting beaten egg orvermicelli in soup and getting everything arranged in dishes.

Then there are three last things for the housewife to do before themeal: to see that the fire is in condition to leave, that soiled potsand pans are filled with water, and last of all to take an instant towash her hands, remove her apron and make herself tidy.

There are one or two ways in which preparations for meals may besimplified. For any large meal but especially for dinner served late inthe day, as many preparations as may be, should be made in the morningor at luncheon time. When making the menu for a meal do not selectthings which conflict; for instance, a roast of meat and a delicatepudding cannot be baked at the same time. Likewise, it is inconvenient,not to say unappetizing to have the meat and vegetables and dessert fora meal all boiled or all baked or all fried. Try not to have two thingsfor the same meal which will be spoiled if they are not served theinstant they are cooked.

At the end of this chapter about food, I have the desire to put alittle verse which often runs in my head when I am getting meals.

"_Though o'er the board the constellations shine, Austere the feast for time's retainers spread;

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Laughter the salt of life, and love the wine, Sleep the sweet herbs, and work the bitter bread._"



|_Method._|_Hours._| _Minutes._ --------------------+---------+--------+-------------- Asparagus | boiled | ... | 20-30 Beans, lima | boiled | ... | 45-60 Beans, string | boiled | ... | 45-60 Beef | roasted | ... | 12 per lb. Beefsteak | broiled | ... | 6-10 Beef, corned | boiled | ... | 20 per lb. Beets, young | boiled | ... | 45-60 Beets, old | boiled | 3-4 | ... Bread, wheat | baked | ... | 40-60 Bread, corn | baked | ... | 40-45

Bread, brown | steamed | 3-0 | ... Cabbage | boiled | ... | 15-35 Cauliflower | boiled | ... | 20-35 Cake, sponge | baked | ... | 45-60 Cake, plain | baked | ... | 30-40 Cake, fruit | baked | 2-3 | ... Cake, layer | baked | ... | 10-15 Carrots | boiled | ... | 35-45 Chicken | roasted | ... | 20 per lb. Chicken | broiled | ... | 20 Chicken | boiled | ... | 15-20 per lb. Celery | boiled | ... | 20-30 Chops | broiled | ... | 6-10

Cookies | baked | ... | 10-15 Corn | boiled | ... | 12-20 Custard | baked | ... | 15-20 Duck | roasted | 1-0 | ... Dumpling, apple | boiled | 1-0 | ... Eggs, soft | boiled | ... | 3 Eggs, hard | boiled | ... | 15-20 Eggs | fried | ... | 5 Fish, boiled or | baked | ... | 10-15 per lb. Fish | fried | ... | 10-20 Gingerbread | baked | ... | 20-30 Ham | boiled | ... | 25 per lb. Hominy | boiled | 1-0 | ... Lamb | roasted | ... | 15-20 per lb. Mutton, boiled or | roasted | ... | 15-20 per lb. Macaroni | boiled | ... | 20-30 Muffins | baked | ... | 15-30 Mushrooms | broiled | ... | 12 Mushrooms | stewed | ... | 20 Onions | boiled | ... | 45-60 Oysters, broiled or | fried | ... | 3-5 Oyster plant | boiled | ... | 45-60 Oatmeal | boiled | 1-0 | ... Parsnips | boiled | ... | 30-45 Pork | roasted | ... | 30 per lb.

Pork | broiled | ... | 20 Potatoes | boiled | ... | 25-30 Potatoes | baked | ... | 45

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Peas | boiled | ... | 20-30 Rice | boiled | ... | 20-40 Sausage | fried | ... | 10-15 Spinach | boiled | ... | 30-45 Squash | boiled | ... | 25-35 Tomatoes | stewed | 1-0 | ... Turkey, boiled or | roasted | ... | 20 per lb.

Turnips | boiled | ... | 45 Veal | roasted | ... | 20 per lb. --------------------+---------+--------+--------------



3 teaspoonfuls, dry = 1 tablespoonful. 4 teaspoonfuls, liquid = 1 tablespoonful. 4 tablespoonfuls, liquid = 1 wineglassful = ½ gill.

2 wineglassfuls, liquid = 1 gill = ½ cup. 16 tablespoonfuls, liquid = 2 gills = 1 cup. 12 rounded tablespoonfuls, dry = 1 cup. ½ pint, liquid = 1 cup. 4 wineglasses = 1 cup. ¼ lb. of flour = 1 cup. ½ lb. granulated sugar = 1 cup. ½ lb. butter, solid = 1 cup. 4 gills = 1 pint. 2 cups = 1 pint. 2 pints = 1 quart. 4 quarts = 1 gallon.


1 tablespoonful, heaped, granulated sugar = 1 ounce. 1 tablespoonful, rounded, butter = 1 ounce. 1 tablespoonful, liquid = ½ ounce. 1 tablespoonful, rounded, flour = ½ ounce. 1 tablespoonful, rounded, coffee = ½ ounce. 1 tablespoonful, rounded, powdered sugar = ½ ounce. 16 ounces = 1 pound. 4 cups of flour = 1 pound = 1 quart. 2 cups butter, solid = 1 pound. 2 cups granulated sugar = 1 pound. 2½ cups powdered sugar = 1 pound. 2 cups or 1 pint water or milk = 1 pound. 1 pint chopped meat, solid = 1 pound. 10 eggs = 1 pound.



THE day when we wear paper clothes and rarely wear them twice has notyet come. Meanwhile washing and ironing must be done, either in the

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home or elsewhere. Even when this work has been banished to a laundryor a house on a back street, it is yet desirable to have some knowledgeof its processes, that when something goes wrong we may be able to tellwhat the trouble is.

The laundry, like the kitchen, should be light coloured, cleanly,orderly and furnished only with articles needed for the work. I was

taken in to see a laundry not long ago which had pale green walls andtwo sunny windows. It contained appliances for the work, a substantiallaundress and a highly coloured picture of the _Madonna_. There wasalso a cricket, not the kind you sit on, but the kind that chirps.


As the appliances for washing and ironing are many, and some of themfor uses not entirely obvious, a list with a few comments on each itemmay be useful.

_Tubs._--Two are needed, three are more convenient. When the washingis finished, the tubs should be scrubbed, rinsed and dried beforethe covers are closed. Portable wooden tubs also need scrubbing andrinsing, but must not be allowed to get very dry. If they are kept in awarm, dry place, put a little clean water into each one. When allowedto dry, the staves shrink and the tubs leak. That tubs are calledportable does not mean they should be carried. About one woman in adozen is really able to carry a tub with water in it. It is not theweight but the attitude in which one is compelled to lift it that makesthe trouble. If there is no one to help to carry the tub, empty it bythe pailful; it takes less time than being laid up with a strain.

_A washboard._--Washboards are made of corrugated glass or metal and

wood. They should be rinsed when the rubbing is finished and kept drywhen not in use. Before putting the board into the tub, see that it hasno rough or sharp places which may tear clothes or hands.

_A washboiler and a washstick._--Keep the boiler scrupulously dry whennot in use. A speck of rust the size of a pinhead can make serioustrouble. The stick is a fairly long, smooth, clean one with which tomove and lift scalding hot clothes.

_A wringer._--Rinse and dry it carefully before putting it away. Atsome other time than in the midst of washing, it is well to study outthe contrivance which regulates the width of the opening between therollers, that one may be able to change it easily and quickly for thewringing of thick or thin articles. The opening should be narrow enoughto make turning the handle quite active exercise, but wide enough toprevent any wrenching or dragging of wringer or clothes.

_A clothesline._--A length of clean rope which can be put up andtaken down each time it is needed is probably the most satisfactoryclothes line. Permanent lines of twisted wire are good, if one mayhave permanent lines. These must be wiped with a damp cloth before theclothes are hung out. This rule also holds good for any line which isleft out in the weather, but rope lines should not be left out if itcan be avoided, for they soon become blackened and sodden. When buyinga clothesline, see that it is not too thick nor too thin for average


_Clothespins._--These must be kept clean, either by frequently getting

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new ones, or by scrubbing the old ones, and also by keeping them, whennot in use, in a covered box or basket.

_Clothes poles._--These are sticks eight or ten feet long, and notcheddeeply in one end. When the line sags between its supports with theweight of the clothes, it is raised with one of the poles. The notchholds the line and the other end rests on the ground.

_A clothes basket._--This article is used for carrying clothes fromplace to place. If it is used only for purposes connected with washingand ironing it will remain for a longer time fit for those purposes.

_A laundry stove._--This stove is not necessary when the washing andironing are done in the kitchen, yet it is more convenient to have oneif the size of the kitchen permits. Set on its top, the wash-boiler isat a convenient height; irons heat more evenly upon it, and are not indanger of being splashed from the cooking.

_An ironing board._--This appliance is frequently wider at one end

than at the other, because the width of the larger end is convenientto iron on, and the narrowness of the other end is easily put throughthe top of a skirt or other garment which is slipped over the boardfor ironing. The board is first padded with several thicknesses ofblanket or felt stretched smooth; a clean, white cotton cloth is thenstretched over it and sewed or tacked very neatly along one edge and atthe ends. All the coverings must be stretched and fastened very tightlyto prevent wrinkles which would mark the clothes. The padding keepsthe edges of the board from cutting through or marking the clothes, itfurnishes a smooth, elastic surface for the sliding movement of theiron, and it makes it possible to iron embroidery, lace or tucks inrelief, by pressing them into the padding with the iron.

Some boards are made with folding legs which are a convenience ifsubstantial and well braced. Besides a large board, it is well to havea small bosom board; they are not merely for shirts but are convenientalso for ironing small articles at other times than on a regularironing day. A sleeve board is likewise a helpful addition to thelaundry fittings.

_Irons._--To do a family ironing at least six irons are needed. Do notkeep them on a stove with fire in it except when they are in use. Theyare spoiled by being constantly heated and cooled, and they get dirty.Water is not good for them. If they are splashed or smoked they mustbe washed, but it is better not to wash them regularly. Cooling a veryhot iron by immersing it in a pail of water is bad for the iron, and isa careless practice besides; it is rectifying a neglect with a violentremedy.

If irons are rough or troublesome about sticking, scrape and wipe themclean, then rub their bottoms and sides with a piece of beeswax tied ina cloth. In the country, rub them on a sandy place in the garden path.I am told that it is good--and pleasant--to rub them on pine-needles.When irons are put away, turn the bottoms up. If they are put away fora long time, it is well to give them a thin coating of beeswax.

If you have ever seen any one test an iron with a wet finger to see ifit is hot, you will only need the courage to try to be able to do it.

Wet your finger in your mouth and strike quickly and lightly on thebottom of the iron; if it--_spits_, to put it elegantly, the iron isright for average ironing. Rub it on a paper or a cloth and judge from

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the effect whether it is clean and of the right temperature for thework you are doing.

_Iron holders._--It is well to have two or three of these articles.Those made of asbestos covered with bed ticking are excellent. Evenwhen irons have a detachable handle, an iron holder will be neededfor a holder rests and spares the hand. They are sometimes made with a

little pocket into which the ends of the fingers can be thrust; it is agood arrangement, for finger-ends have to be so near the iron that theysometimes get scorched.

_An iron stand._--A stand is necessary to rest the iron on when thelaundress needs both hands to arrange the article she is ironing. Ifone is hard put to it for a substitute, a horse-shoe, or a piece offire-brick will serve, the latter is especially good because it holdsheat.

_A clothes horse._--The more closely it folds up and the more rungs ithas when unfolded, the better the clothes horse. Its chief use is to

provide a place close at hand where newly ironed articles may be hung.Such a place is necessary because the articles are still a trifle dampand because one does not wish to walk any great distance to dispose ofeach piece.

_Wax, cloths and paper._--The use of these articles has already beenmentioned. Pieces of wax can be bought already covered and attached toa convenient little handle. Cloths and paper come from the housewife'sstore of useful things.

_Soap._--From the thousands of kinds of soap one can only make a choiceby means of personal experiment, or by accepting the recommendation ofsome one who has already experimented. The kind preferred once settled

upon, it is best to buy enough at a time to last several months and tokeep it exposed to the air, for unless soap dries a little before it isused, it wastes.

Many preparations are sold to whiten clothes and make washing easy. Touse them is a risk, and I have yet to see one which produced even asgood temporary results as intelligent washing done with good soap andfollowed by thorough rinsing.

_Starch._--Starch--the raw material--should be protected from dust ina closed box or jar and not exposed to strong light, as this in timemakes it slightly yellow. It is on this account that starch boxes arefrequently lined with dark blue paper.

Cold starch is merely starch dissolved in cold water. The proportionis a tablespoonful of starch to a pint of water. Stir until it seemsdissolved, but stir again before dipping each article as it settlesquickly. This starch is used just before ironing. Articles starchedwith it should be squeezed out well and folded in a dry cloth for tenor fifteen minutes, then ironed.

To make boiled starch, moisten three tablespoonfuls of starch withcold water. Stir and press out the lumps until it is smooth as cream.Then begin to stir it fast and pour on quickly a quart of boilingwater. Allow it to boil about twenty minutes. Toward the end of the

time put in a piece of spermaceti as big as a walnut and stir untilit is mixed with the starch. Substitutes for this are a bit of lardor a bit of butter. When clothes come home smelling of kerosene, it

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usually indicates that the laundress has used a dash of that oil as asubstitute for spermaceti. If candles are used in the home, it is wellto save the ends for the starch. Wax or oil added to starch makes itsmooth and keeps it from sticking to the irons.

_Bluing._--The purpose of bluing is to give white clothes a bluishtinge instead of the yellowish tinge they are apt to acquire.

Substances for the purpose can be bought in several forms and areused greatly diluted. Two or three squeezes of a bluing ball, or ateaspoonful of liquid bluing is often a sufficient quantity for a tubof water. Bluing must be thoroughly stirred into water. If this is notdone before clothes are put in, they will be streaked. Some people puta few drops of bluing in starch.


Where soiled clothes are to be kept during the interval between washdays is often a difficult question. A closet in the laundry made

especially for the purpose is one solution; a hamper set in someventilated but secluded spot in the house is another. It is unfortunatethat often the bathroom is the only refuge for a clothes hamper.Articles like bed linen, which are only changed once a week shouldbe changed as near the wash day as possible, but I do not think thismatter so important that the change of linen should be made on Sunday.

The first step in the process of washing is to sort the clothes,separating white, coloured, woollen and silk articles. The whitedivision always, sometimes the others, must be divided again intoarticles which have been put to personal uses, such as garments, bedlinen and towels, and those which have not, as table linen, and dishtowels.

Notice in sorting the clothes whether anything is stained, and if so,put it aside to be especially cared for. It is often impossible toremove stains after they have been soaped.

Some people soak clothes over night; some put them to soak the firstthing in the morning; some do not soak them at all. In any case, onlywhite cotton or linen articles may be either soaked or boiled. Clothesare put for soaking into a tub of water, each article crushed together,not folded. They may be soaped or not, as one pleases. Linen which hasnot been put to personal uses should be laid in a separate receptacle,or else not soaked.

When the time has come to begin the washing let the water out of thetub in which the clothes are soaking, then cover them with clean, hotsuds. Put in the wash board with its legs firmly planted against theside of the tub opposite to you. Soap and rub each article insideand out, and little or much, according to need. Attend especially toseams, hems and very soiled places. As the articles are washed, puteach through the wringer, folding it with buttons in and narrow enoughto go easily between the uprights of the wringer. Put them then eitherdirectly into the boiler, or into a basket which can be carried overto the boiler when the other pieces are ready. If some piece is stillsoiled after the rubbing, soap the soiled places again before puttingit into the boiler.

As soon as these articles of personal use are in the boiler, begin towash the other white clothes in clean suds. Rub and wring them and put

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them into a tub of rinse water. By the time these are finished, theclothes can be turned out of the boiler into the tub just emptied, andthe white things in the rinse tub put into the boiler for their boiling.

Rinse the boiled clothes, preferably twice, then prepare the bluing,put unstarched articles through it and lay them in the basket forhanging out. Articles to be starched must be left in the second rinse

water until the starch is ready, because no clothes may safely lie inbluing. After being washed, rinsed, or blued, clothes must be wellwrung, otherwise they will be a means of passing soapy water from onetub to another and will never be thoroughly rinsed.

Intervals must be found between some of these performances for hangingout unstarched articles and for making the starch for the others.

When the first boilerful of clothes are hung out or waiting to beblued, empty the second boilerful into the tub. Rinse as the othersand when they are ready, blue and starch these and all that have beenwaiting. Put articles, or parts of articles, which are to be very

stiff in the starch first. See that they are well wrung and shaken outbeforehand and well squeezed out afterward. Dilute the starch a littlefor the pieces which are to be less stiff. If napery is to be slightlystiffened, put it into a tub with clean water and two or three largespoonfuls of the starch.

When the white clothes have been hung out, wash the coloured things inclean suds. They are neither soaked, boiled, nor blued, and they shouldnot lie in the wash or rinse water. Wash, rinse twice, and hang outat once in a shady place unless they must first be starched. A littlestarch of original thickness should be saved for the coloured clothesif any of them must be very stiff. Dark cambrics are better stiffenedwith gum-arabic dissolved in water, for they are apt to be streaked

by starch. Stockings, unless woollen, are washed with the colouredarticles. Colour can sometimes be set in wash material by soaking it insalt and water.

Woollens are neither soaked, boiled, blued nor starched, nor shouldthey ever be put into water in which any thing else has been washed orrinsed. The wash water and the rinse water for them should be of thesame temperature and should feel neither warm nor cold to the hand.Wash them in suds made with good, white soap, and wash the white onesfirst. Shake them well before hanging them on the line and shake themevery now and then while they are there. Do not rub woollen articleswith soap, nor wring them with your hands or a wringer, nor hang themin hot sunshine or close to a fire. Knitted articles must not beironed, but flannels, after they have dried, may be pressed with a verymoderately heated iron.

Silk clothes should be washed and rinsed in tepid water and ironed witha good iron while they are still wet.

It will be found convenient to hang clothes of the same kind togetheron the lines. One of the reasons for this is that when they are takendown they are already sorted for sprinkling. Sprinkling is done thenight before the ironing day, or early in the morning of that day. Ifthe weather is very warm, or there is no cool place in which to keepthe dampened clothes, it is better to sprinkle them in the morning, as

during the night they may turn sour.

Spread a clean dish towel or cloth on a table, lay the pieces on it

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one on top of the other and sprinkle water over each with your hand ora clean whisk. In winter it is well to use warm water for this. Foldlarge pieces into a manageable size. Do not put white and colouredclothes together, nor yet starched and unstarched articles.

When all the pieces of one kind are sprinkled, or enough of severalkinds for a roll, roll them tightly, turning in the sides as one does

the paper round a package. Thin pieces require less sprinkling thanthick ones, and folded pieces need sprinkling on both sides, butdirections of this kind are of little avail, for only experiment canshow you how wet to make each piece. If clothes are not well dampenedthey cannot be made smooth with the iron, yet they must not be so wetthat they cool the irons and require an exceptional amount of pressing.

As the rolls are made, lay them in the clothes basket. When they areall finished put a cover over them, lest the outermost pieces drybefore the time comes for them to be ironed.

Time and strength are wasted in attempts to use cool irons, therefore

allow them time to get thoroughly heated before you begin to iron. Setup the board in a place where it will not be in a draught, as thisquickly cools the irons. Place the iron-stand at the right-hand end ofthe board, and with it a paper, a cloth and a piece of beeswax. Underthe board spread a clean cloth, that when long pieces are being ironedthey may rest on the cloth instead of on the floor.

The order in which ironing is done is a matter of preference. Somewomen say, do the heaviest and most difficult pieces first. Othersprefer to alternate the hard and easy ones. Women who do theirhousework without assistance usually make a roll of little unimportantthings which they iron in the intervals of getting luncheon or of othernecessary work.

Large articles like tablecloths and sheets are folded down themiddle and first ironed on one side, then on the other. They mustbe folded evenly and perfectly straight. Things like pillow cases,which cannot be slipped over the board, are also ironed double and onboth sides. Fine pieces, such as tablecloths and shirtwaists, shouldbe ironed until entirely dry. On the contrary, the pieces known asflat-work--sheets, towels, etc.--may be ironed, carefully folded, andallowed to dry on the clothes horse.

The object of ironing is to make things smooth and the shape they areintended to be. By keeping this in mind, and taking pains to accomplish*t, one can soon teach oneself to iron acceptably.


The time and care required for washing some articles is so much morethan can well be given them in the regular wash, that it is betternot to attempt to do them on the wash day. Such articles are blankets,curtains, embroideries, lace, chamois gloves or any very delicatefabrics.

_Blankets_ are successfully washed by the method given previously forwoollens, though the water used may be warm if preferred. In that case,

the rinsing water must be equally warm. In washing both wool and silkit is very necessary not to change their temperature.

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If _curtains_ are torn or stained, they must be mended, and must havethe stains removed before they are washed. Put them in good, hot sudsand do not rub them or wring them, or lift them heavy with water, butinstead, pat them and knead them gently with your hands for a goodwhile, then press as much water out of them as possible and throw theminto rinse water. Rinse again and again until they do not discolourclean water.

Bluing and starch are absorbed by lace and delicate fabrics to anunusual degree, therefore if you wish to use either for curtains, usevery small quantities.

When the washing is finished, put the curtains on stretchers. Setwhite curtains in the sun to dry, others in the shade. An expedientwhich may be employed if stretchers are not obtainable, is to pin thecurtains to the carpet in a room which need not be used for two days.Cover the carpet with sheets, then stretch the curtains into shape andpin them down tightly. This is a troublesome method, but it producesbetter results than ironing. If curtains are washed and ironed in the

way ordinary articles are done, care must be taken not to stretch themout of shape when they are hung on the clothesline. Hang them with thelength of the curtain running in the same direction as the length ofthe line.

The following is a good receipt for washing curtains:

Into a pail of boiling water put one-half cup of kerosene, twotablespoonfuls of pearline. Stir for fifteen minutes. Put in thecurtains, let them stand twenty minutes. Rinse twice in lukewarm waterwithout rubbing or wringing. Rinse once in cold water. Blue, and starchand put on a stretcher.

Wash _embroideries_ in lukewarm suds made with white soap. Do not soapor wring them. Press and move them about with careful hands and onlyleave them in the water as long as is necessary. Rinse thoroughly andiron on the wrong side while still wet. Spread several thicknesses offlannel or thick folds of cotton cloth over the ironing board, thispadding will bring the embroidery out in high relief. These directionsapply to either silk or cotton embroidery with the exception that thelatter, if white, may be soaked or hung in the sun without injury.

If there is the slightest need, _lace_ should be mended before it iswashed. Precious old lace should also be basted on strips of muslinwith a very fine needle and thread.

Soak lace for a half-hour in lukewarm suds made with very good whitesoap, then press it and pat it and lift it up and down in the sudsuntil you think it is clean. Press the water out of it between yourhands, and rinse it several times. Then, if it is basted on pieces ofmuslin, clip the threads on the back of the pieces and with the utmostcare separate lace and muslin. Pin the former out on a pillow, usingsmall pins and exercising much patience. Every little point must befastened down, and pins woven into the straight edges in the directionin which the edges run. Lay the pillow in the sun and do not remove thelace until the next day.

If lace is to be ironed, pad the board beforehand in the way

recommended for embroidery. Use a very moderate iron for the lace mustslowly and gently be pressed into its original shape.

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Everybody who has read "Cranford" remembers with delight that lace maybe whitened by soaking it in milk. It may also be made tan-colour bydipping it in coffee or tea. The latter is better because it leaves noodour. A weak solution of gum arabic will stiffen lace when stiffnessis desired. Starch is not usually satisfactory.

Water in which fine fabrics are washed must either be soft by nature,

or must be made soft with borax.

_Chamois gloves_ can be washed successfully with cold water and goodsoap. Some people recommend putting a few drops of sweet oil intothe water. Wash them until they are clean, soaping and squeezing andrubbing them. Rinse them once. Squeeze them out hard and then gentlystretch and press each glove into the shape and size it was when it wasnew. Hang them up to dry, but not in the sun, or near a heater, or in aplace where you may forget them. For at least three or four times whilethey are drying, they should be again gently rubbed and stretched. Uponthe care with which this is done, depend the softness and shape of thegloves. When they are almost entirely dry, put them on your hands, then

take them off and again gently stretch them into shape.

Things which may not be washed in water are sometimes cleaned withnaphtha or with some kindred fluid. I hardly think this should be doneunless one can do it out of doors. It is extremely dangerous work, notonly to oneself but to the lives and property of other people.

At least try other methods before such washing is resorted to. Morethings can be washed in soap and water, if they are washed cleverly,than is generally realized. Articles of delicate colour and texturecan often be dry-cleaned with potato flour, powdered French chalk, orpowdered magnesia. Rub the flour or powder gently into the fabric, andallow it to remain there several hours. Then shake it out and repeat

the process. It is also a good method to put the article to be cleanedinto a box, powder it all over with one of these substances and thenshut it up for two or three days. Several times each day shake the boxwell.

Light coloured articles, which may not be wet, such as walls,furniture, rugs, fur, curtains and worsted shawls, may sometimes beimproved by rubbing flour and corn meal into them and then shaking andbrushing it out again. I am told that white fur can be made clean if itis rubbed with plaster of Paris, shaken, and then rubbed with a dampcloth. I cannot vouch for plaster of Paris, but I can for corn meal andflour, for with it I once successfully cleaned a white kitten.


Housewives make various arrangements by which the family wash may bedone with less expenditure of time and strength on the part of thehousehold than it usually requires. Some have a woman in to do thiswork; some have the clothes washed out of the house and sent home roughdried for ironing; others send the flat pieces to a laundry and havethe others done at home; others yet send the elaborate pieces out anddo the flat wash in the house. A somewhat different sort of compromisecan be made if the woman of the house realizes that light washing ispleasant, skilful work. She can considerably lessen bills for washing

and ironing if she will herself do the handkerchiefs, napkins, doilies,stockings, and other small pieces.

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A word or two may well be said in regard to a few of the commonestdifficulties that arise in this work.

A rainy or violently windy day is probably the most frequent

emergency. If one has an attic or a cellar, temporary lines can be putup in either or both; if one has not, there may be room for a line ortwo in the kitchen and the clothes horse must help out. If there is noplace where clothes can be hung in the house, either put the washingoff, or get all the white clothes to the stage of the second rinsing,then put them into the tubs with clean water and leave them till thestorm is over. The coloured things must wait, the woollens also, unlessthere are so few that they can be washed and hung up in a bedroom, orsome equally unusual place.

There is not much that can be done when the wash water is muddy. Fillas many receptacles with it as possible, the night before the washing

day and in the morning pour the water off, disturbing the settlings aslittle as possible. Its muddy colour will remain unchanged, but it willcontain less actual mud.

If one makes the mistake of getting clothes too blue, it will savetime eventually to rinse and dry them again. For several washings aresometimes not sufficient to remove colour which has been ironed in.

In freezing weather, it is a good plan to have a short length of lineon which small pieces can be pinned in the house. Line and clothes maythen be carried out and put up at the same time, and can be brought intogether when the pieces are dry.

Clothes frozen to the lines are easily torn unless they are carefullyremoved. Therefore wrap up well before going out to do this work, thatyou may not be in a hurry. Also put on heavy gloves or mittens andcrush the frozen corners of the clothes hard in your hand before tryingto detach them from the line.

A scorch will sometimes disappear if it is sponged gently with a wetcloth. To hang the scorched garment in strong sunshine is also a goodremedy. Dip a serious scorch in soapsuds or borax and water beforehanging it in the sun, if, however, the texture of the material isinjured, the misfortune can only be remedied with a darn or a patch.

Sometimes starch will stick and coat the irons. In such a case, it isan assistance to sponge the starched pieces all over lightly with coldwater and a clean cloth, and to scrape the irons thoroughly and rubthem with beeswax. If, after this, the starch is still unmanageable,rinse the clothes in clear water, and if they are then too limp stiffenthem with cold starch. This really takes no more time and strength thanstruggling to iron sticky clothes; it also prevents garments frombeing torn, which is an invariable part of the vexation and anxietyoccasioned by starch which sticks.

A sentence containing two words like vexation and anxiety may not beallowed to end a chapter. I will put here, instead, that well-wornreproach of housework, that it is ephemeral--work done merely to meet

passing necessities. For this reproach is a great source of contentmentin the work. Most thankfully I can remind myself that things over whichI could cry with weariness to-night will not exist to-morrow; most

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thankfully I realize that this day's work is only one of hundreds likeit, and in all those days, even I can learn to do the work acceptably.



JOKES about house cleaning have somewhat decreased in number, whichmakes one hopeful that the miseries of house cleaning have alsodecreased. Certainly there has been an earnest effort on the part ofmany housekeepers to make the performance an inconspicuous piece ofwork instead of an orgy.

House cleaning is of two classes: that which is done when the house iscontinuously occupied, and that which is done when a house is opened or

closed after a season of absence or of occupation.

For either class, a careful preparation removes half the difficultiesand for both ample time should be allowed.

One should especially beware while house cleaning of what Bishop Hallcalls the "lust of finishing." Try to clean only as much each dayas can be put back into habitable order by the time the men of thehousehold come home. One room a day is all a woman unaided should tryto do. Mankind are pleased to make jokes about house cleaning andglad am I that they can take it that way, for really it is a trialof character to come home tired and hungry and find the house cold,the rooms in disorder and a picnic supper spread in the kitchen by an

overwrought wife.

Preparation for either class of house cleaning includes, for one thing,a decision as to what renewals and repairs are to be made. Painting,papering, floor renovation, carpet and wall cleaning, upholstering andwhitewashing are all matters to be decided before the cleaning begins,that they may not conflict, and that those which make dirt and littermay be done before the actual cleaning of the rooms.

Another sort of preparation is the cleaning of cupboards, closets,desks, bureau drawers, book-cases--everything which can be tightlyclosed or covered. A little time devoted to this work every day forseveral weeks helps to make brief the period of necessary disorder.A day or two before a room is cleaned, ornaments and pictures can betaken down, cleaned and put away until their places are ready forthem again. One must of course be careful not to remove comforts orconveniences.

House cleaning is merely an especially thorough and complete periodicalcleaning, such as has been described in Chapter Six, to which areadded certain works of renovation and the packing and unpacking ofpossessions which are used only during a part of the year.

_Renovations._--Renovations which are made by professionals merelyrequire of the housekeeper that she appoint a time for the workers to

come, that she see that they do come and that they do their work well.

It may happen, however, that the housewife wishes or is compelled to

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make some renovations herself, and though there is no way to find outhow to do the work except by doing it, yet a few suggestions may help.

_Whitewashing._--The cleaning of the cellar usually involveswhitewashing. Perhaps you think anybody can whitewash. Truly, anybodycan, but often it's himself he whitewashes instead of the cellar.

The amount of lime which can be bought in most places for ten centswill make four or five pails of whitewash. A friend of mine said, whenI asked her how much lime she bought for whitewashing her cellar, "Oh,two lumps about as big as my head." When I asked, "Head with puffs orwithout?" She changed it to, "about half a bucketful."

A firkin or a large pail which does not leak and which can be devotedto the purpose is needed for slacking the lime. Put in the lumps, thenpour half a pail of water on them, carefully because you do not want tosplash your surroundings with lime nor burn yourself. Do not be alarmedat the commotion you thus unwittingly create; when the lime has thumpedand hissed and gurgled a few minutes, put on another half-pailful of

water. When the lime gets more quiet, add water enough to fill the keg,and stir until it is smooth, then cover to keep out dust and leave ituntil it is cool.

When you look at it again it will probably be smooth and thick likesour cream. If there is water on the top stir it in. Then dip out someof the lime into a pail and dilute it with water until it is like goodmilk. Stir it thoroughly.

Surfaces which are to be whitewashed should be well brushed to removedust and loose flakes of old whitewash. Apply whitewash with a broadbrush and do not put it on very thick. It will look gray and unpleasantuntil dry.

The whitewasher should prepare herself carefully for the work. Limeis injurious to clothes, shoes and skin. Wear old shoes and clotheswhich can be washed, and protect your head and hands. Professionalwhitewashers usually appear in hats or sunbonnets; it is not a badgeof their profession, but a means of protecting their eyes when theywhitewash above their heads. Protection for hands is even morenecessary, a day's work without protection means hands too sore to usefor anything. One might think that rubber gloves would be perfect forthis purpose, but in a few hours the lime eats through the rubber. Oldrags which one can tie round one's hands and replace with others whenthey get wet are I believe the most effectual protection.

Lime once slacked can be kept from one whitewashing to another and fromyear to year merely by keeping it always wet. It should also be keptcovered, for dust discolours it.

_Painting._--Surfaces which are to be painted should first be madeclean, dry and smooth. Sweep and wipe walls and ceilings, scrubwoodwork with soap and water, remove stains and grease spots, sandpaperrough places and fill dints, cracks and scratches: those in the wallswith plaster of Paris, those in the woodwork with putty. When woodworkreceives two coats of paint, the putty should be applied after thefirst coat has dried.

Surfaces which have not before been painted always require two coatsof paint. The first must be thoroughly dry before another is applied.

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Amateurs succeed better if they use already mixed paints, ratherthan those of their own mixing. If after it has been long and wellstirred paint is thicker than light cream, it should be thinned withturpentine. Because in thick paint the places where the strokes ofthe brush began and ended are apt to show; likewise, because thicklypainted surfaces are easily scarred.

Paint with long, light strokes; it is a motion like waving a flag, notlike scrubbing.

For wide surfaces, like walls or ceilings, use a fairly wide brush tosave time; for narrow places like door and window casings use a smallbrush. Soak new brushes in water, and keep all brushes in water duringintervals when they are not in use. A brush which has dried with paintin it will soften if it is soaked in turpentine.

_Floors and Carpets._--Methods for refinishing hardwood floors weregiven in Chapter Six.

The directions for beating rugs given in the same chapter apply equallyto the cleaning of carpets.

_Papering._--It is not always safe to copy professionals in the matterof putting on wall paper. They do many things which the unskilledcannot. Nevertheless, the first thing to do in this work is to examinethe paper already on the walls. Count the full-length strips, thencount the short strips and calculate how many full-length strips theyamount to.

As a double roll of wall paper is usually 16 yards long, the number ofstrips a roll will cut can be found by dividing 16 yards by the lengthof one strip. The length of a strip is obtained by measuring the height

of the room from the top of the base-board to the ceiling. Be sureto divide 16 yards by the length of one strip in _yards_, or else todivide its equivalent, 48 feet, by the length of one strip in _feet_.

If a room is not already papered the number of full length strips maybe found by measuring the distance round the room, exclusive of thedistance across doors and windows, and dividing it by the width of thepaper. One must then measure spaces too short or too narrow for wholestrips and as before calculate how many full-length strips they amountto.

When the number of full-length strips required for a room has beenobtained by either of the foregoing methods, the number of _rolls_required may be obtained by dividing the number of strips needed bythe number of strips a roll will cut. It is always wiser to get oneroll more than the number thus obtained; this allows for the waste inmatching and for strips which may be spoiled in the putting up.

When the old paper has been examined remove it. Brush it over with hotwater and peel it off. Sweep the walls and fill cracks and holes withplaster of Paris wet with water.

Cut the margin from one side of each roll of paper, from the same sidein every case. Usually the margin is wider on one side than on theother, which helps one to remember which side to cut. Paper hangers cut

off both margins but it is better not to do this until one has acquiredsome skill in paper hanging. As you unroll the paper to trim off themargin, also roll up again the part which has been trimmed.

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On a pasting board or on the floor run out enough paper, face up, froma trimmed roll to make a full-length strip. Make a fold in the paperat the length required and cut it with scissors or a sharp knife. Laysomething across the ends to keep the strip from rolling up. Again runout paper from the roll about the length of the strip but this timelay it with the trimmed edge on the untrimmed edge of the strip and if

necessary draw it up to make the pattern match. Cut off the few incheswhich have to be drawn beyond the strip to make the match, then cut astrip from the roll the length of the first strip. Continue to do thisagain and again until there are as many strips as you need. Then turnthem all face down.

Paste each strip with quick long strokes, using a wide paint brush orwhitewash brush. Fold the lower end lightly toward the middle, farenough to keep it from touching the floor when you raise the strip bythe upper corners. Place these corners against the wall where theybelong and press the upper part of the strip against the wall, thenbrush it lightly downward with a clean brush, unfolding the lower part

when you come to it.

Put up all the full-length strips first, beginning beside a door or awindow frame where you will have a straight edge for a guide. Put thetrimmed edge of the first strip next the woodwork, lap the trimmededge of the next strip over the margin of the first, and so on. If thedistance between the last strip put up and the corner of the room isnot sufficient for the width of the strip, either leave that space andput the next strip on the next wall with the trimmed edge close in thecorner, or else cut the strip lengthwise and put it up with the cutedges meeting in the corner. When all the full-length strips are up,cover spaces which are too short or too narrow for a whole strip withpieces cut for the purpose from the strips left.

A border is put up last and must be done by two or three people, orelse cut into lengths short enough for one to handle.

Good paste is made as follows:--Into an enamelled or new tin saucepanput four quarts of water and bring it to the boiling point. Mix a cupof flour with cold water as if for thickening gravy; beat it smooth.Pour it into the boiling water, stirring all the time until the mixtureis thick as cream and has boiled a little. Remove from the stove, andif there is any likelihood that the paste will be kept over night, putinto it a piece of alum as big as a walnut. This keeps it from becomingsour.

_Packing._--Renovations accomplished by amateur effort are more apt tobe associated with house cleaning of the first class, than with that ofthe second. Packing, on the contrary, though it has a small necessarypart in the cleaning of a house continuously occupied, is a chief andimportant performance in closing a house. In fact, this latter processis little more than packing up a whole house.

The suggestions concerning packing which follow are intended to be ofuse in closing a house but they amply cover the packing away which isdone spring and fall in a house which remains open.

Woollen articles and furs should be packed in receptacles which close

tightly and should have some substance unpleasant to moths packed withthem. It is a wise precaution to line packing boxes or trunks withbrown paper which has been wet with turpentine, or with newspaper, for

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both are disliked by moths.

All articles should be thoroughly brushed and shaken before theyare packed. Many people disapprove of hanging them out in the sunbeforehand, as they think this gives the moths a splendid chance to layeggs in comfortable, sun-warmed fur and wool.

Things soiled or half-soiled ought not to be packed away. Dirt injuresfabrics and colours and helps to breed creatures. Possessions which areto remain packed for a long time should not be put away starched. Donot wrap white articles in white tissue paper, it turns them yellow.Beware of putting into packing trunks anything which gathers dampness.It may be romantic to find a dried rose laid away with somebody's balldress, but a brown spot on the front breadth is not romantic. Piecesof camphor should be wrapped in paper and any other substance usedto keep out moths must be sprinkled or laid in with discretion. Blackclothes are rarely injured by such things, but coloured ones may be.

Curtains, hangings, bed coverings and all textile furnishings, whether

woollen or not, should be packed or folded and wrapped when a houseis to be closed as they require protection from light and dust. Sofapillows may be put into old pillow slips and left in their places orpacked, whichever is more convenient. Mattresses and bed pillows shouldbe covered with old sheets or dusting sheets.

Some people have their carpets and large rugs taken up, cleaned andstored by the cleaners or brought back to the house and left rolleduntil needed again. Such rolls should have paper tied over the endsand should be separated from each other. Sometimes carpets are left onthe floor and covered with crash while the house is closed; the crashprotects them from dust and from being faded. Fabric-covered walls andupholstered furniture should be covered to protect them from the same

dangers. It is convenient to have a cover for each piece of furniture,but if several pieces are grouped together they can be covered with onecloth.

Ornaments, pictures, mirrors and light fixtures should be wrapped incloths or paper to keep them from dust, light and flies. Silver andvaluables should be sent away to some reliable place for storage orlocked in a safe. Bright objects such as andirons, brass curtain polesand candlesticks and their like are better wrapped in brown paper. Rubthe nickel fittings in the bathrooms with the rags which have been usedfor polishing floors or furniture. This is good for them at any time.

Books which are to be left in a closed house should be carefully dustedand shut in cases, or covered with sheets. A piece of gum camphor, or afew drops of oil of lavender put on the shelves will help to keep awayinsects, mould and mustiness.

Leather-bound books need special care about once a year whether thehouse is open or closed. Care which agrees well with them is this:First wipe them thoroughly and affectionately with a flannel cloth;then dip a small piece of flannel into a mixture of equal partsparaffine and castor oil, and with it wipe all the leather parts of thebindings.

In city houses green shades are usually put up in summer and

light-coloured ones in winter. Any shade which is taken down should betightly rolled to keep the spring from loosening.

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When closing a house in a place where there is much dust, it is wellto lay pieces of paper on the window sills, just far enough overthe outer edge to be held by the window when it is shut. These keepthe dust which sifts in from lying on and discolouring the sills. Ifstoves, lengths of pipe and wire screens are put away for a time, it iswell to grease them, unless the place where they are put is absolutelydry. Melted lard or drippings are good for this purpose, and also

kerosene, though in time this completely evaporates. The nickel partsof stoves keep in better condition if they are wrapped in paper afterthey are greased.

When a kitchen is to be closed for a season, the room and everything init must be left clean and dry, otherwise there will be mould, rust andwater-bugs to contend with when the house is opened. Some scouring andpolishing will be saved if bright tin and brass utensils and fittingsare wrapped in paper. The contents of cupboards and drawers should begrouped on tables and covered with paper or cloths, and no food keptexcept stores which are not injured by keeping.

Inflammable liquids such as alcohol, kerosene and turpentine should notbe left in a closed house. Matches should be shut in a tin box or takenaway altogether.

The last thing before a house is closed--gas, electricity and watermust be turned off. After the water is turned off, empty the tanks ofthe closets as they may rust if water stands in them several months.Crude glycerine or some liquid which does not evaporate should bepoured into all traps. In the course of months the water in trapsevaporates and leaves the passageway for gases from the sewer to thehouse unobstructed.

On account of this evaporation, the water should be run occasionally

in rooms and bathrooms which are not in regular use, in order that thetraps may be kept full.

Two general rules to be followed in preparing a house to be closed are:mark all articles which are wrapped up in unrecognizable packages, and,as far as it is reasonable, leave things in the rooms in which theybelong.

Many people would add to these the rule that household possessionsshould be repaired before they are put away. I think, however, thatthis rule does not apply to clothing, furs, hangings, upholstery orany textiles. Such are improved or deteriorated by being packed away,and one cannot tell beforehand which will happen. Likewise, they arefreshened by being repaired or altered just before they are again used.

It is true, however, that household appliances, and the house itselfshould be put in order before the house is closed, for possessions likeplumbing, rain-pipes, woodwork, light fixtures, furnaces, stoves andshades grow worse the longer they are left out of repair, and sometimesinjure other things.

_Opening a House._--Just before a house is to be opened, light andwater should be turned on, all the contrivances connected with themexamined and needed repairs made. It is better that this part of theopening should be done a day or two before any one returns to the house

to live.

Dust is the first thing to look after when the house is opened.

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Remove as much of it as possible before anything is uncovered. Thenremove covers and put things in their places, beginning with thosemost necessary for living. After that rearrange and renew those whichrequire it as soon as the time and needed assistance for doing so canbe obtained.

Housecleaning of any sort can hardly fail to be a time of turmoil and

weariness for the housekeeper. Her help is to remember that if thefamily have good food and comfortable beds and are not scolded orquarrelled with, they are well enough off to wait several days or evenweeks for curtains, clean windows and slippery floors.



THIS does not pretend to be a chapter, though it is called so forconvenience. It is merely a list of miscellaneous suggestions drawnfrom experience, which may be useful to others.

It is in the very nature of emergencies that they cannot be forseenor prepared for. They are things like those encountered by theknight-errant as he rode through the unknown forest--things which arenever twice the same and which must be met and dealt with, withoutforethought or consideration. And they are most successfully dealtwith in an adventurous spirit, as things to call out one's courage andaddress, and put them to the proof.

I know that is a difficult spirit to attain. Mistakes and failures andthe remarks which families feel themselves at liberty to make aboutsuch things are disheartening and painful. "The funny side" is the bestdefense always against one's own distress and the thoughtlessness ofother people. I have found that a person who sees the funny side of acalamity or of a difficulty gives more help in housekeeping than anyone else. Happy the home which contains such a person, thrice happy onein which that person is its mistress.

A woman who is inclined to take household failures and accidents tooseriously may comfort herself with the thought that what she fails todo to-day, she will probably succeed in to-morrow; and also with thereflection that an occasional uncomfortable accident is good for herfamily. A few spoonfuls of scorched soup eaten for courtesy's sake isvaluable food. Likewise, household accidents can be used to plant inthe family mind that calamities are to be shared by all. It is notmerely a reproach to the housekeeper that the _family_ maid does notset the table correctly, or that the _family_ potatoes are burned.

Probably if a husband remarks, "Your gravy is cold," it is just as wellfor his wife to reply delightedly, "No colder than _your_ beans."

Not awfully clever perhaps, but better than hurt feelings.


Stale bread or cake can be freshened by plunging it into cold water and

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then setting it in the oven for a few minutes. It must be used at once.

Pieces of stale bread may be thoroughly dried in the oven, thenput through the meat chopper and kept in a glass jar for coveringcroquettes, fried oysters, etc.

Pieces of meat which in appearance and quantity will not be suitable

for a meal may often be used by arranging some vegetable on the samedish. The pieces can be warmed in gravy and wreathed with carrots orpeas. Or they can be put through the grinder, packed into a mould linedwith boiled rice and the whole heated. Or they can be chopped, putinto ramakins, covered with potato crust and slightly browned. Theseare merely samples of the many ways in which vegetables can be made toconceal the fact that there is not meat enough for a main dish.

Left-over breakfast food of any of the cooked varieties can be madeinto delicate little cakes which will make up for the lack of avegetable or do for a luncheon dessert. If there are about two cupfulsor less, mix with one egg and a saltspoonful of salt. Fry in very hot

grease using about a dessertspoonful of batter for each cake. Theywill sputter and be hard to turn, but that merely indicates their goodqualities.

If thickening remains lumpy instead of stirring smooth, strain itthrough a fine wire strainer.

Curdled mayonnaise need not be wasted. If a new dressing is begun andstirred until it begins to thicken, the curdled dressing may then bestirred in as if it were oil.

Cream tomato soup can be kept from curdling if a bit of soda not largerthan a pea is stirred into the milk. This holds good for any cream soup

or for milk which is to be boiled.

A piece of soda not larger than a pea boiled with vegetables will keepthem green.

Boil this same quantity of soda with old, tough vegetables and theywill soften.

It makes less odour through the house, and makes the vegetablesthemselves less strong, if cabbage, cauliflower, onions and some kindsof beans are drained two or three times while boiling, and coveredagain with fresh hot water. It is better not to put a cover over suchthings.

If potatoes baked in the meat pan will not brown, they can be brownedin a frying pan on top of the stove.

When water has boiled off vegetables and they are burning, remove thepot from the stove and turn the contents quickly and lightly intoanother pot. Let everything which is inclined to stick, stick. Put hotwater on the vegetables and return them to the stove if they need morecooking. Put water and a tablespoonful of baking soda into the burntpot.

Yolks of eggs, also lemons, will keep longer if laid in cold water.

Pieces of charcoal wrapped in bits of cheese cloth and laid with meator tucked inside poultry help to keep either sweet.

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If the cook must be a long while absent from the kitchen while fowlsare roasting, strips of bacon pinned across their breasts and legs willbaste the fowls for her.

If the fire is too hot for broiling, or if for any reason the broilermay not be used, heat the frying pan hot without greasing it. Lay the

meat in the pan first on one side then on the other. The result is muchlike broiling, some people even prefer this method.


_For milk._--Water, or milk and water, may be used in either cake orbread when receipts say milk with little variation in result exceptthat bread and cake thus made dry more quickly.

Sour milk may be used in mixtures which require sweet if just enoughsoda is put into it to make it sweet, and the baking powder is measured


Sweet milk may be used when a receipt calls for sour if lemon juice isstirred into it until the milk thickens.

_For celery in salad._--Use tender cabbage and celery seed. Or useendive.

_For chicken._--Excellent substitutes for chicken croquettes andchicken salad can be made of veal or of young pork.

_For cream._--Use milk and double the quantity of butter.

_For butter._--In cake, use half butter, half lard and a pinch of salt.

In cookies, one may risk using three-quarters lard, if the lard is verygood and the available butter very poor. In less delicate cookery lard,sweet drippings or chicken oil may be used. Before using any of thesesubstitutes salt them a little.


_Fruit and wine stains._--If fruit juice or wine is spilled at table,cover the spot with salt. The salt lessens the stain, saves theappearance of the table, and diverts attention from the culprit who didthe spilling.

Boiling water poured through fruit or wine stains will usually removethem entirely. If it does not, try a weak solution of oxalic acid.

_Coffee and tea._--Pour boiling water through the stains until theydisappear.

_Ink and iron rust._--Cover a spot of either ink or iron rust withsalt wet with lemon juice and lay it in the sun. Repeat until the spotdisappears.

Or, use salts of lemon and sunshine in the same way.

Or, if the material stained is white linen or cotton try chlorinated

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Sometimes ripe tomato will remove ink stains.

Sometimes soaking them in milk will take them out.

Often an ink-eradicator such as is sold to remove writing from paper

will take ink spots out of white material.

_Paint._--Turpentine will remove paint from fabrics, also from glass oriron.

_Mildew and grass stains._--Try lemon, salt and sun applied as for ironrust.

Try diluted oxalic acid.

If the material stained is white, try boiling it in buttermilk.

Try alcohol for grass stains.

Or rub them with molasses and then thoroughly wash the fabric.

_Grease spots._--If the article may be washed, try washing it with coldwater and white soap.

Or, moisten it with a strong solution of household ammonia and water,cover with blotting paper and iron dry.

Or, sponge with a mixture of four parts alcohol to one part salt.

Powdered French chalk will often remove grease spots from silk or

woollen materials.

Tar, carriage grease or machine-oil may usually be removed by rubbingthe material with lard and then thoroughly washing it with soap andwater.

Spots of candle grease will disappear if they are covered with blottingpaper or coarse fibred brown paper and ironed with a hot iron.

_Kerosene._--Kerosene spilled on books, rugs or furniture will quicklydisappear if they are held near a hot fire or a gas jet. Not nearerthan your hand can bear. Sometimes if the article is left in strongsunshine all day, the spots will disappear.

_Blood stains._--Wash first with clear cold water.

If the stain is obstinate wet with kerosene, then wash in warm suds.

_Stained hands._--They are improved by the application of any of thefollowing: vinegar, lemon juice, pumice, ripe tomatoes or dishwater.

_Note._--Colour taken out by an acid can usually be restored with analkali. Colour taken out with an alkali can usually be restored with anacid.


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_Ants._--Powdered borax sprinkled on shelves and along baseboards anddoor sills will keep ants away.

Ants will not walk over broad, thick chalk lines. Such lines drawnround boxes and jars some distance above the shelf or floor on whichthey stand will protect them from ants.

Ants and other crawling insects may be kept out of a cupboard whichstands on legs, if its legs are set in bowls or cans of water.

To wash cupboards and shelves with a strong solution of alum and water(1 lb. to 2 qts.) is a protection against any kind of insect.

_Mice._--An excellent defense against mice is a velvet-footed,self-possessed, Epicurean Philosopher in the shape of a cat.

Traps are good if one may not have a cat.

Seek diligently for holes large enough to admit mice and have them

stopped. If you discover one unexpectedly and have nothing else athand, thrust a piece of yellow soap into the hole. I have not yetfound among mice the counterpart of the gentleman who cleaned his teethwith yellow soap for the sake of self-discipline.

Poison is a poor expedient for ridding the house of mice. Whatever maybe said in the advertisem*nts, poisoned rats and mice frequently die inthe walls or in the cellar and make life miserable in the neighbourhood.

It is with reluctance that I suggest attacks upon mice. I must hastento finish them, for a little later in the evening a tiny, palpitating,silken, gray ball with bright eyes will come and sit on my desk andeat crumbs. What if he should sit down on this page and see what my

housewifely conscience compels me to write, but not always to act upon!

_Moths._--Gum-camphor, tar-camphor, turpentine, pepper, a largecollection of patent substances, extreme cold and extreme heat are allobjectionable to moths.

Ways of packing articles to protect them from moths have been given inthe chapter on house cleaning.

Careful sweeping and dusting, and frequent airing of clothing andhangings are excellent and natural preventatives of moths.

_Water-bugs and co*ckroaches._--Keep places where they congregate dryand clean. Practically all the well-known roach foods and roach saltseffectually prevent these creatures, but none are effectual in placeswhich are allowed to be dirty or damp.

_Bedbugs._--If a housewife has ever had the least trouble with thesecreatures there is one warning to take to heart and constantly obey:Watch! Complete extermination is extremely difficult. Sometimes aftertwo or three years of absence they appear again. Besides there isalways danger that they may be brought into the house from a street caror a laundry or some such place.

If one finds a few of these creatures, apply creosote, or corrosive

sublimate, or some patent poison to the bed or cracks where they werefound. Apply the poison with a feather or a squirt. Be sure to mark thebottles containing it with the word "_Poison_" and keep them where they

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will not easily be found by others than the housewife.

If one makes the horrifying discovery that a room is really infestedwith these creatures, then indeed one must fight hard and unceasingly.Paint and varnish are a great help in such cases. If the room ispapered, remove the paper, fill every crack first with poison, thenwith plaster of Paris. Paint or calcimine the walls instead of papering

them again. Fill every crack in the woodwork with putty, have amoulding put over the place where the baseboards meet the floor, andpaint or varnish all the woodwork so thick that there are no cracks.Wash the bed and the furniture in the room and varnish all theirunderneath and unfinished parts. Then, every day when the room is putin order, seek these flat, brown creatures everywhere.


Keep in the kitchen a few soft, old white rags for wrapping burns,cuts, bruises and other injuries. Keep also for these hurts a bottle

containing two teaspoonfuls of borax dissolved in one quart of water;or two ounces boracic acid dissolved in one quart of water. Either ofthese mixtures is healing, soothing and antiseptic. Always wrap burns;air aggravates them. Keep them wet with one of these solutions and thepain will soon be allayed. Wrap burned fingers separately, or they willstick together.

An excellent remedy for scalds is always at hand in the kitchen--theflour dredger. Cover the scalded place thick with flour and keep itcovered.

Stings and bites of insects should be kept wet with ammonia for ten orfifteen minutes, or covered with baking soda wet with water. Clean mud

from a garden bed or a flowerpot is also excellent for them.


Meals for people who are in bed are an emergency of housekeeping.In their preparation, economy should not be exercised unless it isgrievously necessary. Sick people are easily annoyed and often have noappetite; sometimes they have even a disgust for food. The necessitythen is that their food should be the best, the freshest, the mostinviting and the most carefully cooked.

It is also important that food should be really hot or really coldwhen it is intended to be. Coffee or tea served in a little pot or ina covered pitcher rather than in a cup will be hotter and not spilledover into the saucer. Plates and cups which are to contain hot foodshould be heated very hot, they will be cool enough for use by thetime they have been carried upstairs. If the tray must be carried anydistance cover hot food with heated plates and bowls. For butter or icecream or any food which must be cold to look or taste agreeable, chillthe plate on which it is to be served and cover it with a chilled bowlor plate. In hot weather put the butter on a little lettuce leaf, orlay a tiny piece of ice beside it.

The appearance of an invalid's tray is often the cause of appetite or

of the lack of it. The linen should always be perfectly fresh, the foodin small quantities and daintily arranged. The dishes may well be thedaintiest and prettiest in the house, and should be small enough for

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easy use. A flower or a geranium leaf is a pleasant addition to thetray.

Before bringing a meal to an invalid, go and see that she iscomfortable. If one has not an invalid's table, it is well to put apile of books or boxes on each side of the sick person on which theends of the tray can rest. It takes strength and nerve to balance

something on one's lap when half lying down.


Including guests in the chapter on emergencies is not intended as adiscourtesy. They owe the classification to the fact that they aresometimes unexpected and always need a little special thought and care,however simply they are received.

It does not seem to me that the people who make no preparationswhatever for guests are any more in the right than those who make

themselves sick-in-bed getting ready for them.

It is not necessary to sweep the whole house, clean the attic andwhitewash the cellar in preparation for a guest, but it does seem thata room should be carefully made ready for them and that more spaceshould be cleared for their possessions than two hooks in the closetand perhaps a bureau drawer.

Certain things which it is pleasant to have in a guest room are in thefollowing list:

An empty closet and empty drawers.

Drinking water, at night, because a guest cannot wander round at nightseeking what he needs.

A candle and matches close to the bed, because something may happen tothe lighting arrangements, or the guest may forget where they are.

A wash cloth, a piece of soap, a brush and comb, pins and a whiskbroom, because these things are easily and frequently forgotten by atraveller.

A wrapper, a pair of bedroom slippers, and a Bible. These three areespecially for transient guests as they are apt to be heavy and largeto carry in a travelling bag.

If the guest-room bed is very daintily covered, it is well to have aplace, other than the bed, where a guest may lie down.

The bed should be opened at night because a stranger often feels ahelpless ignorance of the intricacies of shams and counterpanes andunaccustomed methods of bed making.

The degree of preparation made for meals offered to guests should begoverned by the occasion. When people are formally invited into yourhome for a meal, it is natural that special preparations should be madefor them, and quite right, provided the repast does do not exceed what

you can afford or serve without evident anxiety. Unexpected guests andguests who stay a few days or more ought to be taken into the regularlife of the family, with only such departures from the usual order as

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the use of finer linen, or flowers on the table, or the preparation ofsome dish which the guest is known to care for.

There are several small reasons why it is not wise to make a suddenchange in the family ways for the sake of impressing a guest. One isthat some candid member of the family is sure to speak of the changeor betray it by awkwardness; another is that the guest is sure to find

out the alteration by this means or some other; and another is that"company manners" and "company menus" produce an awful restraint whicheven a cordial family and a genial guest cannot break through.

Then there are two large reasons for not trying to impress a guest; itis artificial and untrue, and it kills natural, simple hospitality. Ifentertaining is made a great trouble and expense, many people cannotdo it. And this is a real misfortune because the reception of guestsis a necessary part of family life. It is a pleasure, it brings newknowledge and new experience, it is an opportunity for kindliness, itdiverts people's minds from themselves and besides, it is a sacred duty.

A good many times I have seen trouble in a family or in a schoolcompletely done away by the coming of an interesting guest. Probablyevery one knows instances when a guest has brought a great happinessor a great blessing. For there is much truth as well as loveliness inthose old tales of angels entertained unawares, of the weary strangersheltered who proves to be the king, and of travellers lodged for anight who departing leave exhaustless gifts.



WHATEVER is said within the next few years of the situation knownas "the servant question" must be in the form of a theory or of anopinion. For the question is still unanswered, the problem unsolved.

There are two things which each woman can do toward solving thisproblem; one is to find out all she can about it in general, and theother is to deal as wisely and calmly as she may with the particularservant or servants in her care.

One of the most obvious things about the situation is that there issomething very much the matter. Listen for only a few minutes to agroup of women talking about their servants and you will hear a mostdisheartening list of complaints. Discount this list somewhat on thegrounds that people are inclined to magnify their troubles, and thenconsider how it compares with the complaints made of the "hands" ina factory or in a mill. There will be many points of likeness andidentity, but in such a comparison one serious difference between theproblem of domestic service and other labour problems cannot fail tobecome apparent. This difference is that each domestic servant comesinto individual and personal relation with her employer and lives inher employer's home, distinctly affecting with her disposition andbehaviour the family life.

One can vividly realize the peculiar troubles which can arise fromthis situation by picturing the anxieties and annoyances that the

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superintendent of a mill or a factory would suffer if he were suddenlyrequired to become the head of a lodging house for his employees.

Our situation is not quite so serious in regard to numbers as his wouldbe, but, none the less, we have constantly to take into our homes womenwho differ from ourselves in nationality, class, education, personalhabits, tastes, standards--in fact, in so many things that a daily and

unavoidable relationship is most difficult and irksome.

Nor are the trials of this relationship entirely borne by the mistress.Is it not a fact to be considered deeply, not to say humbly, that girlsprefer to work in factories and stores for poor wages and to live inwretched lodging houses, rather than to receive good wages and livein our homes? What is there in this relationship of domestic servicewhich the workers on their side so much dislike?

Also, a maid feels the incongruity we have mentioned between the familyin which she lives and herself. A maid-of-all-work, especially, canhardly fail to be very lonely. The lack of fixed work hours in this

service deprives the maid of personal liberty and of any protectionfrom unreasonable demands. From morning till night and from night tillmorning she is at the mercy of the whims and temper of another woman.She knows that in this occupation she will be ranked lower sociallythan her acquaintances who do not "live out." She knows, also, howlittle respect her work commands even from those who are benefited byit. Even the kindest of us sometimes say, "She looks like a _cook_" or,"I feel as if I were dressed for the intelligence office." If we speaklike that of an occupation, is it surprising that women wish to avoidit?

It is not hard to deduce from the complaints made on both sides thatthe problem of domestic service is a problem of personal relationship.

Its solution then depends upon the discovery of a possible and wiserelation between mistress and maid, which it will become the generalpurpose to establish and preserve.

At least two alternatives lie already before those who would discoverthis relationship. One is to recognize and endeavour to perfect thesystem of domestic service which has been for centuries in use;the other is to develop and establish a new system which lies as apossibility in the minds of many people and has been sporadicallytried. For convenience, I shall name these two and call the first, thepatriarchal system, the second, the business system.

The patriarchal system of domestic service has been in use some time.It probably began when the first woman brought the first man hisfood for love's sake. Then one day she was ill or the baby neededher and she asked some other woman to take it to him for the sakeof neighbourliness. Then perhaps in a time of dearth it occured toan impoverished woman to serve another for the sake of food andclothes--and so it all began.

Up to a very recent time servants were often permanent members of thehousehold. The phrase "a family servant" and a very few representativesof the class are still with us. The relation between such servants andtheir masters and mistresses was a personal and moral one. At its best,the servant gave time, work, strength, loyalty and love, for life; the

master and mistress gave food, clothes, shelter, protection, nursing,affection and a home, for life.

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One cannot say how widely this ideal prevailed, but certainly it onceexisted in thought and fact as it does not now. Times have changed,have they not? And changed so quickly that we hardly know just wherewe are in regard to servants. Servants on the one side, masters andmistresses on the other side, have dropped the responsibility out oftheir relationship and yet they fondly expect other things to remainunchanged. One woman complains that her servants are "disrespectful,"

another that they are "ungrateful," another that "they do not careanything about her." Suppose a servant should suddenly turn and askus, "Do you care anything about me? Do you know about my childhood? Doyou know how many brothers and sisters I have, and whether my fatherand mother are yet alive? Do you know what things make me glad or gay,what interests or hopes I have? If I am faithful to you, will you teachme and help me in my ignorance and my sins, and at last protect myhelpless old age?"

If your cook should suddenly turn on you with these questions--on you,who own to having fifteen cooks in two months, or even on you whogrieve because servants are not respectful, would not either of you

discharge her at once and say you were "never so insulted in your life?"

And yet if the patriarchal system of domestic service is to work, wemust be able to answer earnestly, "yes," to these questions, and theservant on her side must make the family life and interests her chiefconcern. She must be like "Black Lize" who lies buried at the feet ofher mistress in a northern cemetery, and who told some of her peoplethat _she_ did not leave "the family" after the war as they had done,she "stayed, and put up with things."

Or she must be like two Irish saints whom I know, devout women eachconsecrated to the service of a family. One hears their feet on thestairs at five in the morning going out to Church, and again going up

to bed late at night after the last young mistress is undressed andcomfortably at rest. They live here or there as others choose; they goout or stay in, sleep or stay awake, wait long or hurry madly as otherpeople wish; they are the chosen companions of the ill, the sad and thedifficult members of the family; they have given up their own familyties to share the fate of another family; they have no end in lifeexcept to serve.

This patriarchal system asks a good deal of mere human creatures, doesit not? And one cannot say positively what the business system will askbecause it has not been tried, but it seems probable that it would askas much only in different ways.

It is time, though, to consider what the requirements of the businesssystem might be, because many people think that domestic service willbefore long undergo some such change as has come over the professionsof teaching and nursing in the last half-century. Any one who willread the novels of Miss Bronté and of Miss Austen, of Thackeray andof Dickens with special attention to the governesses and nurses theycontain, is likely to feel surprise, however well he may know thehistories of these professions.

Particularly consider "Shirley" for governesses and "Martin Chuzzlewit"for nurses and then picture the teachers and nurses of to-day, andit will not be hard to believe that in fifty years the profession of

domestic service may also be so changed in status that no woman willfeel it a social descent to employ herself therein.

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What will the relation between worker and employer be then, and whatwill be required of each?

The relation would doubtless be that of a business contract suchas one has with a teacher, a typewriter or a nurse. The employercould not ask for respect, but for business courtesy; she could notexpect gratitude, but rather skilled service for value received. Her

responsibility for her employee would consist in paying her wages,in providing her with "sanitary surroundings," in requiring only adefinite number of hours of work from her, and in regarding her withthe same sort of human consideration which is used toward other wageearners. In all probability these things would be required of thehousekeeper by law, as they are in greater or less degree requirednow of employers of labour. Women would have to know more abouthousekeeping than many do now, to be able to direct professionalworkers. They would have to give up using the word servant and themanner and feeling which sometimes go with it, or their employee wouldprobably seek another position.

The employee would not be a member of the household; she would usuallysleep out of the house and come in for work hours, she would not takeher meals with the family any more than she does now but it would befor the same reason that your husband's superintendent or secretarydoes not go out to lunch with him. She would expect the wages whichwere customary for her training and work hours. She would not beexpected to have any especial attachment for her employers other thanthat arising from the fact that they fulfilled their business contractsand treated her courteously. She could not expect to have incompetencyignored, nor to learn her business from those who were paying her thewages of a skilled worker.

Would you like these requirements any better than those of the

patriarchal system?

These are just two sketches of the possibilities of an old system andof the probabilities of a new one.

The problem, as you must personally meet it, unsolved, unclassified,little understood and a good deal discouraging is even now perhapsgetting dinner in the kitchen. Probably the best plan for dealing withher at present is to use a little of both systems. It is wise to bevery business-like about some things. "Days out," for instance, oughtnot to be interfered with except in case of family calamity. If themaid chooses to spend them at home, they should be as much hers asif she had gone out. Sanitary surroundings are another thing. I hopethat if I looked into your maids' room I should not see that there wasno light, no heat, a double bed for two maids who are strangers toeach other and the most meagre washing conveniences. It is useless tosay that it is better than their homes, it is not their homes, it is_your home_. When an inspector goes to see about factory conditions,he does not say, "It's well enough, it's as good as their homes."Another thing about which we should be business-like is the matter ofhours. We should be as particular that our maids do not work sixteenhours as if we had a Trades' Union compelling us to be. A business-likepoint-of-view would also preserve us from despising a necessary anduseful occupation. I have mentioned the careless way we speak of itsometimes, but what I think really matters more, is that some women

would rather put up with lying, stealing, and immorality in a maidthan take the risk of having to do her work. On the maid's "day out,"likewise, some of us do as little of her work and do it as slightingly

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as we can, and she knows it.

But we shall need the patriarchal method in dealing with maidspersonally. They are of many nationalities; they are untrained,untaught; they have different customs, different manners, oftendifferent feelings from ourselves. We shall need much knowledge andhuman sympathy to understand them; much patience and quietness to teach

them. We shall have to explain things which are new to them a greatmany times and very simply. We shall have to tell them definitely a fewthings which we require, and we must keep them and ourselves faithfullyto these requirements. We must not lose our tempers with them becausethis lessens our authority, and besides, it is inexcusable to loseone's temper with a subordinate. We must not expect sympathy from themin the trouble they give us. We shall not get it any more than we wouldget such sympathy from children in school.

It is sometimes a help over a puzzling place to remember that this workhas a resemblance to the work of teaching. There is required of usthe same willingness to wait long for results, the same patience with

ignorance and clumsiness and defectiveness, the same quiet firmnesstoward carelessness and insolence.

Many teachers have to begin to teach when they still know very little.They learn as they work, and so can housekeeper teachers. If the cookknows more about her work than you do, by all means learn from her andtake her advice often, but do not allow her on this account to rule thehousehold, or to decide about family arrangements which are not in herdepartment.

Do you know that letter of Saint Paul's written to his friend Philemonon behalf of a runaway slave? It is an irresistible letter. Such amingling of loving confidence and insistent authority is hardly to be

found elsewhere. And also, with a little thinking, a little puttingtogether piece by piece, one gets a whole, vivid dramatic story fromthis letter.

But its importance to us is that it is a letter written about aservant, and has more in it than people have yet been able to put intopractice, though they have made a little progress in about nineteenhundred years.



I BELIEVE that the chief reason that women find the work ofhousekeeping irksome and sometimes intolerable is a reason seldom givenor reckoned with. The objections frequently raised, that women dislikethe work because it ties them at home, because it takes all their time,because it tires them so that they can do nothing else, are obviouslyinadequate.

For why should it not do all these things? Lawyers, doctors and

teachers give all their time and thought to their work; nurses,companions and secretaries do not have much time to go out; women whostand behind counters, tend looms or sit at switchboards are often too

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tired even for pleasure when the day's work is done. A woman who earnsher part of the family living by making a home cannot expect to bedelivered from toil. Is it likely that she can succeed in a difficultprofession without giving up pleasures and ease for its sake, withoutworking as hard and as unquestioningly as the men of her family do fortheir part of the family support?

Some people say that we regard the profession of housekeepingunreasonably because women are by nature lazy, frivolous, and notcapable of very much intellectually. Now, though I humbly acknowledgethat these things may have to do with it, yet I believe, as was atfirst suggested, that there is a chief reason for the serious distastewe often feel for the profession. This reason is, that a certainreticence and effacement, which every one should exercise in regard tohis work, is required of housekeepers in unusual measure.

People who can think and talk of nothing but their own work andinterests are very difficult people; a housekeeper who has this faultis not only difficult, she is dangerous. For women who make their

housekeeping an idol pretty soon begin to offer it human sacrifice.

I remember hearing, as a child, a woman say of another who was animmaculate housekeeper: "She swept her sons to the Devil." A puzzlingsaying to me then, a terrible one to me now, for it was true. Thosesons were never allowed in the house till they had taken off theirshoes; they were not allowed in the yard because they made a litter.Naturally, they went to those places which opened to them mosteasily--the street, the saloon, the state's prison.

This is an extreme case, but there are countless others, grading fromthose as serious as this to those in which homes just miss beingcomfortable on account of tiny, gnat-like annoyances. They are cases of

failure in the woman's profession, and, trivial or great, they arisefrom the same cause, from the neglect of that thing we don't like abouthousekeeping--its unique characteristic--its _effacement_. Our workas housekeepers is only notable when it is not noticed. It must bedone, delighted in and loved but seldom talked about and always heldsubservient to other ends. Housekeeping is the servant, silent andeffaced, of peace, and home-likeness and health and joy, and of allthat we call spiritual in those who form our households.

And therefore, the housekeeper's life is full of little secrets;secrets of suffering and weariness, secrets of amusem*nt and joy. Butthey are secrets which spoil her work if they are told. If one is amartyr, one must not tell about it. The saints who wore hair shirts didnot cut a hole in the front of their clothes to show them. The womanwho is always telling how much she has to do and how much she "has toput up with," has not stopped at cutting a hole in her clothes, shewears her hair shirt on the outside to scratch other people with. Doyou remember Mr. Pip's sister, in "Great Expectations," who constantlyreminded the family that she never took her apron off?

It is natural in this connection to say a word about the care of thehousewife's own health and cheerfulness. Better even than to concealweariness and depression is to have none to conceal. Some women arefor years driven and spurred beyond reason by what we please ourselveswith calling conscientiousness or energy, but find at last that it was

undisciplined ambition, or a stupid lack of system, or that we wereblinded to the comfort and pleasure of other people by a determinationto sacrifice ourselves.

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A woman who does her housework without assistance should expend some ofher conscientiousness upon getting a rest. Fourteen hours is too long awork-day for any one. She must get it out of her mind that to rest isto acknowledge defeat and weakness; far from it--it is such a difficultthing to do that she will probably have to learn how. Some people findthat it rests them most to lie down and read a pleasant book; others

can, or can teach themselves, to sleep. Others, yet, find that to donothing is like slipping the belt off the fly-wheel of an engine,their minds run the faster for having no work to hold them back. Aremedy for this is just to say one's prayers--not prayers of asking,but prayers of realization, of companionship.

There is also relief which should be accepted or secured for oneselfas the work is being done. To change one's broom from side to side; tocarry a pail first in one hand then in the other; to straighten one'sbody and fill one's lungs now and again when washing or ironing orsewing; to spare one's hands and feet; to occupy the time spent in longtasks with pleasant thoughts--all these are things which help us to be

well and glad and to keep the secret that we are sometimes tired andtroubled.

To return now to the other type of housekeeping secrets; it is lessunsafe to share pleasant secrets than painful ones, but often eventhese are better kept. Unusual expedients, surprising shifts, the planwhich pops into your head at dinner for using a left-over to-morrow areall better kept to oneself, or at least kept until the thing is so farpast that only the funny side of it remains. The girl in Miss Austen's"A Nameless Nobleman," who basted her grandmother's bed-curtains andvalance into a wedding dress and refused to tell where it had come fromhad woman wisdom. Her husband appreciated the joke much more when, afew months later, he saw the same embroidery adorning his bed.

We need to realize the dignity and usefulness of housekeeping; wemust recognize that it is an active, clever employment in which thereis much to learn, much to be found out; we may well regard it as aprofession deserving our strength and time for life--and yet----

We must never be so absorbed in its importance or occupied with itsaffairs, that we cannot be quiet, and listen. For it may be thatacross many, many years we shall hear a voice saying lovingly and yetreprovingly: "Martha, Martha----" Perhaps we may need to lie awakeand question ourselves, as I think that other Martha must have donein the still night at Bethany. Why should earnest, careful service beunacceptable? Why does a weary guest, who often has hardly the time toeat bread, care little for a feast? Is there something more required ofa woman than keeping her household warmed and fed, and something lessrequired than notable success in her own work?

Doubtless that other Martha sobbed herself quiet at last over herfailure and reproof, and then in the quietness remembered that in theguest chamber her Guest lay at rest.



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INSPIRATION cannot be explained or described. I cannot tell you nor canyou tell me what makes the long tasks of housework bearable and itsservice sweet. But I can tell you some things which come to me when Iam weary and disheartened.

* * * * *

There is a picture by Murillo, called "The Angels' Kitchen," of angelswith wide wings folded, and star-eyes bent on the daily tasks ofhousewives.

* * * * *

There is also Brother Lawrence, who had "a great aversion" to the workof the kitchen, but "accustomed himself to do everything there for thelove of God," and so found "everything easy during fifteen years."

* * * * *

When Lacordaire was asked why he thought it important to keep his tinysecluded room in spotless order, he replied, "The Holy Angels alwayssee it."

* * * * *

The words have been in the ears of the world for centuries, that Hetook upon Himself the form of a servant. Has it entered into ourunderstandings yet, that to be a waitress or a butler or a cook or anursemaid or to do the work of them all as a housewife is to take uponourselves a divine office and companionship.

* * * * *

But it is just of three women that I oftenest think. One is thatbeggar-maid whom King Cophetua made his queen; another is Griseldawhom Lord Walter chose from rags and penury and grievous toil to behis wife; and the last, the outcast, beheld by the Prophet Ezekiel, ofmarred beauty and defiled garments, yet chosen for love's sake to be abride adorned and honoured.

Their stories are our stories. We are each one of us both servant andqueen; we are each one of us somewhat unlovely, somewhat unable and yetexalted. And in the servant's heart is always the radiant secret, "I amthe queen"; and in the queen's heart is always the remembrance, "Theselowly tasks belong to me by right."

Doubtless at last when the tasks are done, comes the fulfilment ofthat vision with which this book began, when the Potter's work will befinished, earth's wheel still, and the clay cup moulded and filled torefresh the lips of the Master who made it.

* * * * *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Varied hyphenation was retained.

Page 163, "necesssary" changed to "necessary" (All necessary shaking)

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Page 248, "calory" changed to "calorie" (The calorie nevertheless is)

Page 303, "untensils" changed to "utensils" (and the utensils and)

Page 309, the table that begins on page 309 has some items out ofalphabetical order. This was left as printed.

Page 389, "rememberance" changed to "remembrance" (always theremembrance)

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Library of Work and Play:Housekeeping, by Elizabeth Hale Gilman


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